Structure of PhD Thesis
This thesis on dance as a form of living cultural heritage is articulated in two main sections.
The first section contains the preparatory work carried out before gathering the data, which includes the:
- Introduction (Chapter 1)
- Literature review (Chapter 2)
- Creation of a conceptual framework (Chapter 3)
- Methodological strategy (Chapter 4).
The second section consists of the findings which include the:
- Analysis of Raqs Sharqi as living dance heritage (Chapter 5)
- Discussion of the data and conclusions (Chapter 6 and 7)
- Appendices – including a glossary of Arabic terms and Raqs sharqi movements, references used in the research and concept maps.
Table of Contents
Abstract and Introduction Section
- Abstract – Introduction to the PhD – explanation of the research project.
- Belly Dance and Me as a Researcher and Dancer – why I studied dance and transculturality.
- Study framework for the dance theory and research (Section 1.1) – an explanation of the concepts map and a look at the 1800s and 1900s and belly dance and its emergence through cinema.
- Rationale for Investigating Egyptian Raqs Sharqi (1.2) – including understanding the transcultural and global nature of dance.
- Structure and Planning (1.3) – A look at how the various sections are structured in the body of the thesis on dance transmission and heritage.
Chapter 2 – Literature Review of Egyptian Raqs Sharqi
- Introduction and identifying the cultural heritage characteristics of Egyptian Raqs Sharqi.
- History of UNESCO Definitions on Cultural Heritage (ICH) from 1899 to the present day (2.2).
- ICH (Intangible Cultural Heritage) Case Studies – a look at examples from around the world that highlight issues of documenting heritage (2.2.1)
- Dance studies and my research – a look at how I start with a brief history of dance studies in relation to culture (2.3).
- Ethnochoreology Literature – with an analysis of the existing ethnochoreology literature and how it relates to dance heritage (2.3.1).
- Egyptian Raqs Sharqi literature review with a look at recent publications on this dance form (2.3.2)
- The transmission of cultural heritage is central to this thesis research in relation to dance, thus I look at the literature on heritage transmission (2.4).
- Authenticity in Intangible Heritage is then discussed with a look at authenticity is positioned in ICH (2.5)
- The internationalization of heritage, its transculturality and hybridism – are discussed and the phenomenon of internationalization (2.6).
- Next, I discuss identity and its relationship with cultural heritage.
- The various uses of dance heritage are then looked at with examples from various literature.
Chapter 3 – Conceptual Framework
- Framework introduction – a brief intro to what’s coming up in the following pages (3.1).
- Discussion on the Tangible versus intangible divide (3.2)
- The missing body in heritage studies and dance (3.3).
- Using Merleau-Ponty and Phenomenology for dance heritage (3.4).
- Bourdieu and the benefits of using the Theory of Practice (3.5).
- Giddens Structuration theory and dance (3.6).
- A model of living heritage by Lo Iacono & Brown (3.7).
- Research questions that emerged.
Chapter 4 – Methodological Strategy
- A look at the methodological strategy and framework used. (4.1 and 4.2)
- The data collection and analysis process summary
- Data collection methods used.
- Using online dance videos for heritage research on sites such as Vimeo and YouTube.
- Using Documents and Media for Dance Research (4.4.2)
- The inclusion and use of semi-structured interviews is explored (4.4.3)
- Research ethics outline for this dance Ph.D. and all considerations made (4.5).
- Data analysis introduction – what’s ahead in the data analysis section that follows (4.6).
- Next follows a detailed explanation of the dance analysis methods used (4.6.1).
- Texts and interviews analysis within the methodological strategy (4.6.2).
- How the data was themed were coded for the research findings (4.6.3).
- The presentation of the dance research data and findings (4.6.4).
- Dance research reflexivity for the methodological strategy (4.7)
- And finally in this chapter, the judgment criteria and section summary (4.8.1).
Chapter 5 – Analysis of Egyptian Raqs Sharqi as Living Dance/Heritage
- Introduction to Raqs Sharqi as living dance heritage (5.1).
- The birth of Raqs sharqi in the late 1800s to 1930s. (5.2)
- Introduction to Raqs sharqi in Egyptian cinema (the 1930s to 1950s). (5.3)
- First dance profile from this period with analysis of Tahia Carioca, the Traditionalist Bint al Balad (5.3.1).
- The next featured dancer is Samia Gamal (5.3.2).
- The 3rd key Egyptian dancer from this period is Naima Akef (5.3.3)
- Egyptian Folklore and the Reda Troupe were also influential in the 1930s to 1950s. (5.3.4)
- Movements analysis of dancers in the 1930s to 1950s in Egypt. (5.3.5)
- Egypt and Internationalisation of Raqs Sharqi (the 1960’s and early 1970’s) (5.4.1)
- The USA and the History of Raqs Sharqi Belly Dance from the 1960s as this dance form beings to go global (5.4.1 continued)
- Analysis and summary of Raqs sharqi and the 1930s to 1950s period.
- Nagwa Fouad and Raqs Sharqi in Egyptian Cinema and TV (the 1970s and early 1980s).
- Continuing this section on Raqs Sharqi in Egyptian Cinema and TV (1970s1980s) we look at Soheir Zaki – The ‘Truly Oriental’ Performer (5.5.2).
- Nelly Fouad who provided innovation in movements, continuing the section on Egyptian Cinema and TV (the 1970s and 1980s).
- And finally in this section, the Sociological and Choreological Analysis of Egyptian Cinema and TV (the 1970s and 1980s) – 5.5
- Next, we move onto the next period: The Last Big Raqs Sharqi Stars in Egypt (the 1980s and 1990s) – 5.6
- From the 1980s and 1990s. I begin to analyze the 3 famous dancers Fifi Abdou, Lucy, and Mona al Said. Starting with Fifi Abdou (5.6.1)
- The 2nd of these stars from the 1980s/1990s I look at is Lucy, the last classical Raqs sharqi artist (5.6.2)
- Mona al Said who was a strong international influencer (5.6.3)
- Sociological Analysis of Raqs Sharqi Stars in Egypt 1980s & 1990s (5.6.4))
- Moving on to Raqs sharqi and belly dance in the 2000s, a look at the Era of Raqs Sharqi as Global Trans/Cultural Heritage. (5.7)
- The 1st of the dancers I look at from the 2000s is Raqia Hassan (5.7.1).
- The 2nd dancer from the 2000s is Dina, who I term the Daring and Modern Belly Dancer (5.7.2).
- The 3rd big Raqs sharqi star from the 2000s I present is Randa Kamel (5.7.3)
- The 4th chosen key dancer from the 2000s period is Camelia, an extremely assertive dancer (5.7.4)
- The 5th dance analyzed is Sahar Samara, a modern but mellow Raqs sharqi dancer.
- Belly Dancers in Contemporary Egyptian Media.
- and let’s not forget male belly dancers in the discourse.
- Laban Movements Analysis of Belly Dancers from the 2000s (5.7.9)
Chapter 6 and 7
- Authenticity of dance/heritage findings and discussion (6.1 and 6.2).
- The next part of the discussion chapter covers the heritage Qualities and value findings (6.3)
- Transculturality and Heritage Discussion and Findings
- This is followed by a discussion on dance and heritage change and traditions (6.5)
- Transmission of Dance and Heritage (6.6)
- Influences on Heritage: Safeguarding it and the threats (6.7)
- Holistic Tangible and Intangible Framework of Embodied Practice Summary (6.8)
- Conclusions on the research questions (7.1)
- Limitations of the Dance Study (7.2)
- Problems Arising During the Dance Research (7.3)
- Dance Heritage Research Implications and Recommendations (7.4)
- Contribution to Research (7.5)