Lo Iacono, V. and Brown, D. H. K. (2016) ‘Beyond Binarism: Exploring a Model of Living Cultural Heritage for Dance’, The Journal of the Society for Dance Research, 34(1), pp. 84– 105. doi: 10.3366/drs.2016.0147.


Adra, N. (2005) ‘Belly Dance: An Urban Folk Genre’, in Shay, A. and Sellers-Young, B. (eds) Belly Dance: Orientalism, Transnationalism, And Harem Fantasy. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers Inc. (Bibliotheca Iranica. Performing Arts Series., 6), pp. 28–50.

Adshead, J. (ed.) (1988) Dance analysis: theory and practice. London: Dance Books.

Adum, P. (2010) Magdy el Galad Interviews Nagwa Fouad, Shira.net. Available at: http://www.shira.net/about/interview-nagwa-fouad.htm (Accessed: 21 March 2016).

Adum, P. (2011a) Dina’s Interview with French Channel 3 in January 2011, Shira.net. Available at: http://www.shira.net/about/interview-dina-2011-01.htm (Accessed: 3 April 2016).

Adum, P. (2011b) Fifi Abdo Jealous of the Beauty of Lebanese Women, Shira.net. Available at: http://www.shira.net/about/fifi-abdo-jealous.htm (Accessed: 31 March 2016).

Adum, P. (no date) Badia Masabni in 1966 Television Interview, Shira.net. Available at: http://www.shira.net/about/badia-interview-1966.htm (Accessed: 22 February 2016).

Ahlan wa Salan Festival (no date) Ahlan wa Salan Festival Teachers list, Ahlan wa Salan Festival. Available at: http://www.raqiahassan.net/#!teachers/galleryPage (Accessed: 2 July 2016).

Ahmad, Y. (2006) ‘The Scope and Definitions of Heritage: From Tangible to Intangible’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 12(3), pp. 292–300. doi: 10.1080/13527250600604639.

Al Rakesa (2014) Dina – Al Rakesa. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ck9t9nJJkUo (Accessed: 2 April 2016).

Al Sherbini, R. (2015) Egypt bellydancer outrage cuts party short, GulfNews. Available at: http://gulfnews.com/news/mena/egypt/egypt-bellydancer-outrage-cuts-party-short1.1489206 (Accessed: 3 April 2016).

Aleya Cairo Bellydance (2013) Camelia of Cairo at Nile Maxim Boat Cairo, Egypt song: Ama ra7 el sabr. Cairo. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j5_nMn8Z3tI (Accessed: 11 April 2016).

Al-Youm, A.-M. (2017) Controversy sparks over using ‘Shakira’ belly dance belt for promoting Egypt’s tourism, Egypt Independent. Available at: https://www.egyptindependent.com/controversy-sparks-over-usage-of-shakira-bellydance-belt-for-promoting-egypts-tourism/ (Accessed: 10 October 2018).

Amaya (2003) Amaya writes about Dina’s seminar in Texas for the Gilded Serpent, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/articles23/amayadina.htm (Accessed: 3 April 2016).

Amselle, J.-L. (2002) ‘Globalization and the future of anthropology’, African Affairs, 101, pp. 213–229.

Anthony, G. and McClure, M. (1995) Summer of Love: Haight-Ashbury at its Highest. Reprint edition. San Francisco, Calif.: Last Gasp.

Appadurai, A. (1996) Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions in Globalization. 1st Edition edition. Minneapolis, Minn: University of Minnesota Press.

Appiah, K. A. (2007) Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers. New York: Penguin.

ArabClassicFilms (2011a) Nagwa Fouad-1957. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kp1tm-Yr2cY (Accessed: 22 March 2016).

ArabClassicFilms (2011b) Nagwa Fouad-1976. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-SqncM88RuA (Accessed: 22 March 2016).

ArabClassicFilms (2011c) Soheir Zaki-1972. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qQ5JIPraTK8 (Accessed: 13 December 2016).

ArabClassicFilms (2012) Nahed Sabri-1963. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=su6Y77w76NQ (Accessed: 21 March 2016).

ArabClassicFilms (2013) Nahed Sabri-1962. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UliSlrW934c (Accessed: 21 March 2016).

Artemis (no date) Naima Akef, Serpentine. Available at: http://www.serpentine.org/yasmin/NaimaAkef.html (Accessed: 19 March 2016).

Ashworth, G. (2011) ‘Preservation, Conservation and Heritage: Approaches to the Past in the Present through the Built Environment’, Asian Anthropology, 10(1), pp. 1–18. doi: 10.1080/1683478x.2011.10552601.

Asmahan (2012a) The Golden Era of the Arabic Nightclubs in London – Part 1: Making the Move from San Francisco to London, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/cms/2012/01/15/asmahan-arabic-nightclubs-londonpart1/#axzz4CK7gtegE (Accessed: 22 June 2016).

Asmahan (2012b) The Golden Era of the Arabic Nightclubs in London – Part 2: A New Era, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/cms/2012/03/09/asmahangolden-era-arab-nightclubs-london-p2/#axzz4CK7gtegE (Accessed: 22 June 2016).

Attride-Stirling, J. (2001) ‘Thematic networks: an analytic tool for qualitative research’, Qualitative Research, 1(3), pp. 385–405. doi: 10.1177/146879410100100307.

Avihass (2014) Mona El Said & Asi Haskal Greece 2014. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pLBhV1M5KCQ (Accessed: 19 December 2016).

Azzazy, N. (1999) Tahaya Carioca Story, The Best of Habibi. Available at: http://thebestofhabibi.com/vol-17-no-4-dec-1999/tahaya-carioca-story/ (Accessed: 18 March 2016).


baadrobot (2008a) Mona Said Asaya. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2LaxBM_Do_0 (Accessed: 29 March 2016).

baadrobot (2008b) Mona Said Drum Solo. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AX7-9iu12hg (Accessed: 29 March 2016).

Bacon, J. M. (2003) Unveiling the Dance. Arabic Dance in an Urban English Landscape. University of Surrey.

Baghirova, S. (2007) ‘Azerbaijani Mugham: Problems and Projects of Preservation’, in Azerbaijani Mugham. Baku: Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, pp. 201–204.

Bakardjieva, M. and Feenberg, A. (2000) ‘Involving the virtual subject’, Ethics and Information Technology, 2(4), pp. 233–240.

Baker, S. (2013) ‘Conceptualising the use of Facebook in ethnographic research: as tool, as data and as context’, Ethnography and Education, 8(2), pp. 131–145. doi: 10.1080/17457823.2013.792504.

Bakka, E. (2015) ‘Safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage – the spirit and the letter of the law’, in Soyland Moen, S. (ed.) Musikk og Tradisjon. Novus AS, pp. 135–169.

Baltar, F. and Brunet, I. (2012) ‘Social research 2.0: virtual snowball sampling method using Facebook’, Internet Research, 22(1), pp. 57–74. doi: 10.1108/10662241211199960.

Banfield, A. C. (1910) ‘The National Archive of the UK COPY 1/550/190’. Available at: http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/C14236117.

Barsalou, L. W. et al. (2003) ‘Social Embodiment’, in The Psychology of Learning and Motivation. Amsterdam, pp. 43–92.

Bauman, Z. (2006) Liquid Modernity. VII. Cambridge: Polity Press.

BBC News (2017) ‘Egypt profile – Timeline’, 9 April. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13315719 (Accessed: 27 April 2017).

Beck, U. (2002) ‘The cosmopolitan society and its enemies’, Theory, culture & society, 19(1–2), pp. 17–44.

Belly Dance & Nice Dancers (2013) Dina – an egyption beautiful belly dancer. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EEFu2U9rNJo (Accessed: 2 April 2016).

Belly Dance Classics (no date) Taheya Karioka and Samia Gamal Interview (1974) with English Subtitles. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gHc6xxoennU (Accessed: 14 March 2016).

Belly Dance Museum (no date) Shafiqa Al-Qibtiyya – egyptian oriental dance and bellydance legends, Belly Dance Museum. Available at: http://belly-dance.org/shafiqa-alqibtiyya.html (Accessed: 19 November 2016).

Beltran, P. (2010) Entrevista con Randa Kamel, Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/10564939 (Accessed: 8 April 2016).

Beltran, P. (2014) Entrevista Tito Seif con Patricia Beltrán – Oriental Dance on line. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nt8B7jky864 (Accessed: 12 April 2016).

Bendix, R. (2009) In Search of Authenticity: The Formation of Folklore Studies. Kindle. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press.

Beneito-Montagut, R. (2011) ‘Ethnography goes online: towards a user-centred methodology to research interpersonal communication on the internet’, Qualitative Research, 11(6), pp. 716–735. doi: 10.1177/1468794111413368.

Berger, M. (1966) ‘Belly Dance’, Horizon, 7(2), pp. 42–49.

Bilgrami, A. (2002) ‘Realism and relativism’, Philosophical issues, 12(1), pp. 1–25.

Blacking, J. (1983) ‘Movement and Meaning: Dance in Social Anthropological Perspective’, The Journal of the Society for Dance Research, 1(1), pp. 89–99.

Blake, J. (2000) ‘On Defining the Cultural Heritage’, International & Comparative Law Quarterly, 49(01), pp. 61–85. doi: 10.1017/S002058930006396X.

Blumer, H. (1954) ‘What is Wrong with Social Theory?’, American Sociological Review, 19(1), p. 3. doi: 10.2307/2088165.

Bodo, S. (2012) ‘Museums as Intercultural Spaces’, in Sandell, R. and Nightingale, E. (eds) Museums, Equality and Social Justice (Museum Meanings). Routledge, pp. 181–191.

Bordelon, C. (2013) ‘Finding “the feeling”. Oriental dance, musiqa al-gadid, and tarab’, in McDonald, C., Sellers-Young, B., and Sellers-Young, B. (eds) Belly dance around the world: new communities, performance and identity. McFarland & Co Inc, pp. 33–47.

Bortolotto, C. (2013) ‘Authenticity: A Non-Criterion for Inscription on the Lists of UNESCO’s Intangible Cultural Heritage Convention’, in Evaluating the Inscription Criteria for the Two Lists of UNESCO’s Intangible Cultural Heritage Convention. 2013 IRCI Meeting on ICH, Tokyo, Japan: International Research Centre for Intangible Cultural Heritage in the Asia-Pacific Region (IRCI), pp. 73–79.

Bourdieu, P. (1977) Outline of a theory of practice. Translated by R. Nice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bourdieu, P. (1984) Distinction: a social critique of the judgement of taste. Translated by R. Nice. London: Routledge.

Bourdieu, P. (1990) The logic of practice. Translated by R. Nice. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Bourdieu, P. (1996) ‘Understanding’, Theory, Culture & Society, 13(2), pp. 17–37. doi: 10.1177/026327696013002002.

Bourdieu, P. (2002) Masculine Domination. Translated by R. Nice. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.

Bourdieu, P. (2005) ‘Habitus’, in Hillier, J. and Rooksby, E. (eds) Habitus: a sense of place. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 43–52.

Bourdieu, P. and Johnson, R. (1993) The field of cultural production: essays on art and literature. New York: Columbia University Press.

Bourdieu, P. and Wacquant, L. J. D. (1992) An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Braunstein, P. (ed.) (2001) Imagine Nation: The American Counterculture of the 1960s & ’70s. New York: Routledge.

British Sociological Association (no date) Statement of Ethical Practice for the British Sociological Association (March 2002), BSA. Available at: https://www.britsoc.co.uk/media/23902/statementofethicalpractice.pdf (Accessed: 5 January 2017).

Brown, D. H. K. (2001) Living links and gender resources: the social construction of masculinities in teaching physical education. Thesis. Loughborough University. Available at: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/handle/2134/6801 (Accessed: 26 August 2016).

Brown, D. and Leledaki, A. (2010) ‘Eastern Movement Forms as Body-Self Transforming Cultural Practices in the West: Towards a Sociological Perspective’, Cultural Sociology, 4(1), pp. 123–154. doi: 10.1177/1749975509356866.

Brown, T. (2017) This Year’s Message Author, International Dance Day – International Theatre Institute ITI. Available at: https://www.international-danceday.org/messageauthor.html (Accessed: 6 May 2017).

Bruckman, A. (2002) ‘Studying the amateur artist: A perspective on disguising data collected in human subjects research on the Internet’, Ethics and Information Technology, 4(3), pp. 217–231.

Bryant, R. A. (2002) ‘Shaking Things Up: Popularizing the Shimmy in America’, American Music, 20(2), p. 168. doi: 10.2307/1350139.

Buchanan, E. A. and Zimmer, M. (2012) ‘Internet Research Ethics’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available at: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2012/entries/ethicsinternet-research/ (Accessed: 1 December 2015).

Buckland, T. (1999) ‘All Dances Are Ethnic, but Some Are More Ethnic Than Others: Some Observations on Dance Studies and Anthropology’, Dance Research: The Journal of the Society for Dance Research, 17(1), pp. 3–21.

Buckland, T. (2001) ‘Dance, Authenticity and Cultural Memory: The Politics of Embodiment’, Yearbook for Traditional Music, 33, pp. 1–16.

Buckland, T. (2006) ‘Being Traditional: Authentic Selves and Others in Researching LateTwentieth-Century Northwest English Morris Dancing’, in Buckland, T. (ed.) Dancing from Past to Present: Nation, Culture, Identities. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 199–227.

Buckland, T. J. (1999) ‘[Re]Constructing Meanings: the Dance Ethnographer as Keeper of the Truth’, in Buckland, T. J. (ed.) Dance in the Field. Theory, Methods and Issues in Dance Ethnography. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd, pp. 196–197.

Bullington, J. (2013) ‘The Lived Body’, in The Expression of the Psychosomatic Body from a Phenomenological Perspective. Springer Netherlands (SpringerBriefs in Philosophy), pp. 19–37. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6498-9_2.

Buonaventura, W. (2010) Serpent of the Nile: Women and Dance in the Arab World. 2nd Revised edition. London: Saqi Books.

Burkitt, I. (1999) Bodies of thought: embodiment, identity and modernity. London: SAGE.

Burkitt, I. (2014) Emotions and Social Relations. Los Angeles, California: Sage Publications Ltd.

Butterworth, J. (2012) Dance Studies – The Basics. London and New York: Routledge.


Cairo Mirage Official (2014) Sahar Samara in popular egyptian cinema 2014. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ba7nZ8P0SqI (Accessed: 21 December 2016).

Cairoscene Team (2015) Top 10 Egyptian Belly Dancers, Cairo Scene. Available at: http://www.cairoscene.com/LifeStyle/Top-Belly-Dancers-in-Egypt (Accessed: 2 July 2016).

Çakir, A. (1991) ‘The Importance of the Protection of Traditional Dances’, Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 33(1/4), pp. 295–299.

Cambridge Dictionaries Online – British English definition of “intangible” (2014). Available at: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/intangible?q=intangible.

Cameron, C. and Inaba, N. (2015) ‘The Making of the Nara Document on Authenticity’, APT Bulletin, 46(4), pp. 30–37.

Cang, V. G. (2007) ‘Defining Intangible Cultural Heritage and its Stakeholders: the Case of Japan’, International Journal of Intangible Heritage, 2(4).

Cater, J. (2011) ‘SKYPE – A Cost-effective Method for Qualitative Research’, Rehabilitation Counselors & Educators Journal, 4(2), p. 3.

Cerice Janan (2006) Princess Raja – 1904. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=42Tj7k9Egig (Accessed: 25 February 2016).

Chamas, L. Z. (2009) Jalilah writes about Badia Masabny for the Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/art47/jalilahbadia.html (Accessed: 24 February 2016).

Cifuentes, H. (1994) Tahia Carioca and Samia Gamal – Reflections from the Stars of the Forties, The Best of Habibi. Available at: http://thebestofhabibi.com/vol-13-no-3-summer1994/tahia-carioca-and-samia-gamal/ (Accessed: 17 March 2016).

Cifuentes, H. (1999) Tahia Talks, The Best of Habibi. Available at: http://thebestofhabibi.com/vol-17-no-4-dec-1999/tahia-talks/ (Accessed: 18 March 2016).

Clara (2012) ‘ASC Theatre Camps: Dab, Slash, Flick: Laban Movement with Patrick Earl’. Available at: http://asc-theatre-camps.blogspot.com/2012/07/dab-slash-flick-labanmovement-with.html (Accessed: 30 August 2016).

Clark, T. (2010) ‘On “being researched”: why do people engage with qualitative research?’, Qualitative Research, 10(4), pp. 399–419. doi: 10.1177/1468794110366796.

CNN (2016) Belly dancer aims to revive lost art, CNN. Available at: http://www.cnn.com/2016/01/29/world/gallery/egypt-belly-dancer/index.html (Accessed: 3 July 2016).

Cohen Bull, C. J. (2003) ‘Sense, Meaning, and Perception in Three Dance Cultures’, in Desmond, J. C. (ed.) Meaning in Motion. New Cultural Studies of Dance. III. Duke University Press, pp. 269–287.

Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. (2007) Research methods in education. 6th ed. London ; New York: Routledge.

Collins English Dictionary (no date) Stakeholder definition and meaning, Collins English Dictionary. Available at: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/stakeholder (Accessed: 6 May 2017).

Collins English Dictionary – intangible (2014). Available at: http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/intangible.

Cooper, S. (2013) ‘Quintessentially English belly dance. In search of an English tradition.’, in McDonald, C., Sellers-Young, B., and Sellers-Young, B. (eds) Belly dance around the world: new communities, performance and identity. McFarland & Co Inc, pp. 152–167.

Cooper, S. (2015) Walk Like an Egyptian: Belly Dance past and present practice in England. Available at: https://pearl.plymouth.ac.uk/handle/10026.1/3361 (Accessed: 13 October 2017).

Csordas, T. J. (1990) ‘Embodiment as a Paradigm for Anthropology’, Ethos, 18(1), pp. 5– 47.

Csordas, T. J. (1993) ‘Somatic Modes of Attention’, Cultural Anthropology, 8(2), pp. 135– 156.

Curteman, N. (2016) ‘Haight-Ashbury: San Francisco’s Hippie Village’, Global Mysteries, 26 November. Available at: https://nancycurteman.wordpress.com/2016/11/26/haightashbury-san-franciscos-hippie-village/ (Accessed: 27 April 2017).


Dahlena Myrick Pearce (2013) Dahlena Early 60’s New Orleans Movie (Baby Dancer). Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-q-xt2GvNUs (Accessed: 10 June 2016).

Daly, A. (1991) ‘Unlimited Partnership: Dance and Feminist Analysis’, Dance Research Journal, 23(1), pp. 2–5.

Daly, A. et al. (1992) ‘What Has Become of Postmodern Dance? Answers and Other Questions by Marcia B. Siegel, Anna Halprin, Janice Ross, Cynthia J. Novack, Deborah Hay, 384 Sally Banes, Senta Driver, Roger Copeland, and Susan L. Foster’, TDR (1988-), 36(1), p. 48. doi: 10.2307/1146179.

Damasio, A. (2012) Self comes to mind. London: Vintage.

Dance for Unity (2013) Egyptian Legend and Master Belly Dance Teacher Fifi Abdou Preforms as the BDC Gala dinner. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SOkPNGwiclM (Accessed: 30 March 2016).

Daniel, Y. P. (1991) ‘Changing values in Cuban rumba, A Lower Class Black Dance Appropriated by the Cuban Revolution’, Dance Research Journal, 23(2), pp. 1–10.

Daniel, Y. P. (1996) ‘Tourism Dance Perfomances Authenticity and Creativity’, Annals of Tourism Research, 23(4), pp. 780–797.
Daniella Cairo (2014a) Camelia shaabi / nile group 2014 nov. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4THMZ9b_qbM (Accessed: 11 April 2016).

Daniella Cairo (2014b) SAHAR bellydance. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JWlbG3n7kfQ (Accessed: 21 December 2016).

Danielson, V. L. (1994) Shaping Tradition in Arabic Song: The Career and Repertory of Umm Kulthum. University Microfilms.

David, A. R. (2012) ‘Embodied Migration: Performance Practices of Diasporic Sri Lankan Tamil Communities in London’, Journal of Intercultural Studies, 33(4), pp. 375–394.

Deacon, H. and Smeets, R. (2013) ‘Authenticity, Value and Community Involvement in Heritage Management under the World Heritage and Intangible Heritage Conventions’, Heritage & Society, 6(2), pp. 129–143. doi: 10.1179/2159032X13Z.0000000009.

Deagon, A. (no date) Feminism and Belly Dance, University of North Carolina Wilmington. Available at: http://people.uncw.edu/deagona/raqs/feminism.htm (Accessed: 5 June 2016).

Deakin, H. and Wakefield, K. (2013) ‘SKYPE interviewing: reflections of two PhD researchers’, Qualitative Research, p. 1468794113488126. doi: 10.1177/1468794113488126.

Desmond, J. (1991) ‘Dancing out the Difference: Cultural Imperialism and Ruth St. Denis’s “Radha” of 1906’, Chicago Journals, 17(1), pp. 28–49.

Desmond, J. (1997) Meaning in Motion: New Cultural Studies of Dance (PostContemporary Interventions). Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press.

Desmond, J. C. (1993) ‘Embodying Difference: Issues in Dance and Cultural Studies’, Cultural Critique, (26), p. 33. doi: 10.2307/1354455.

Desmond, J. C. (2003) ‘Embodying difference: issues in dance and cultural studies’, in Desmond, J. C. (ed.) Meaning in Motion. New Cultural Studies of Dance. III. Duke University Press, pp. 29–54.

Dickey, M. (2004) ‘The impact of web-logs (blogs) on student perceptions of isolation and alienation in a web-based distance-learning environment’, Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 19(3), pp. 279–291. doi: 10.1080/0268051042000280138.

Dougherty, R. L. (2005) ‘Dance and the Dancer in Egyptian Film’, in Shay, A. and SellersYoung, B. (eds) Belly Dance: Orientalism, Transnationalism, And Harem Fantasy. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers Inc. (Bibliotheca Iranica. Performing Arts Series., 6), pp. 145–171.

Downey, D. et al. (2010) ‘Body image in belly dance: integrating alternative norms into collective identity’, Journal of Gender Studies, 19(4), pp. 377–393. doi: 10.1080/09589236.2010.514209.

Dox, D. (2006) ‘Dancing around Orientalism’, TDR, 50(4), pp. 52–71.
Dubinina, O. (2011) Randa Kamel ‘Interview after course, May 2011’. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ODgj67jEd4 (Accessed: 8 April 2016).

duniaoriental (2007) Ibrahim Akef. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJ_S3bxbkAk (Accessed: 25 February 2016).

Dunin, E. (2014) ‘Emergence of ethnochoreology internationally: The Jankovic sisters, Maud Karpeles, and Gertrude Kurath’, Muzikologija, (17), pp. 197–217. doi: 10.2298/MUZ1417197D.

Dunin, E. I. (2006) ‘Romani Dance Event in Skopje, Macedonia: Research Strategies, Cultural Identities, and Technologies’, in Buckland, T. (ed.)

Dancing from Past to Present: Nation, Culture, Identities. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 175–198.

Duran, M. (2010) Galit Mersand Teaches The Shisha Dance, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/cms/2010/01/13/marthareviewsgalitshishadvd/ (Accessed: 20 December 2016).


Early, E. A. (1992) Baladi Women of Cairo: Playing with an Egg and a Stone. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Edensor, T. (2001) ‘Performing tourism, staging tourism: (Re)producing tourist space and practice’, Tourist Studies, 1(1), pp. 59–81. doi: 10.1177/146879760100100104.

Edison, T. A. and Hendricks, G. (1895) Princess Ali, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Available at: https://www.loc.gov/item/00694136/ (Accessed: 11 May 2016).

Egyptian Streets (2015) ‘Two Egyptian Belly-dancers Sentenced to Prison Over “Debauchery”’, Egyptian Streets, 3 September. Available at: http://egyptianstreets.com/2015/09/03/two-egyptian-belly-dancers-sentenced-toprison-over-debauchery-in-music-videos/ (Accessed: 3 July 2016).

El Nouran Company (2005) Oriental Dance Festival 2005 – Technique Vol. VIII for Raqia Hassan.

El Safy, S. (1993a) Cairo Unveiled, The Best of Habibi. Available at: http://thebestofhabibi.com/volume-12-number-1/%E2%80%9Ccairounveiled%E2%80%9D/ (Accessed: 31 March 2016).

El Safy, S. (1993b) Dina, The Best of Habibi. Available at: http://thebestofhabibi.com/2vol-12-no-2-spring-1993/dina/ (Accessed: 3 April 2016).

El Safy, S. (1994) Jamila Salimpour, The Best of Habibi. Available at: http://thebestofhabibi.com/vol-13-no-4-fall-1994/jamila-salimpour/ (Accessed: 5 June 2016).

El Safy, S. (1995) Interview with Raqia Hassan: The Mother of Invention, The Best of Habibi. Available at: http://thebestofhabibi.com/vol-14-no-1-winter-1995/raqia-hassan/ (Accessed: 8 April 2016).

El Safy, S. (1996) Mona El Said, The Best of Habibi. Available at: http://thebestofhabibi.com/vol-15-no-1-winter-1996/mona-el-said/ (Accessed: 29 March 2016).

El Safy, S. (2001) Nagwa Fouad, The Best of Habibi. Available at: http://thebestofhabibi.com/vol-18-no-3-march-2001/nagwa-fouad/ (Accessed: 21 March 2016).

El Safy, S. (no date a) Home Page, Shareen El Safy’s official website. The Spirit of Egyptian Dance, Belly Dance. Available at: http://www.shareenelsafy.com/ (Accessed: 7 July 2016).

El Safy, S. (no date b) Randa’s Revolution, The Best of Habibi. Available at: http://thebestofhabibi.com/blog-2/ (Accessed: 6 April 2016).

El Safy, S. and Murjan, M. S. M. (1997) Bert Balladine, The Best of Habibi. Available at: http://thebestofhabibi.com/vol-16-no-1-winter-1997/bert-balladine/ (Accessed: 5 June 2016).

El Said, M. (no date) Mona El Said. Available at: https://sites.google.com/site/monaelsaiddance/ (Accessed: 29 March 2016).

Elliott, A. (2013) Reinvention. London ; New York, NY: Routledge.

Elo, S. and Kyngäs, H. (2008) ‘The qualitative content analysis process’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62(1), pp. 107–115. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04569.x.

Emma (no date) ‘Golden Age: Samia Gamal and Zeinat Olwi’, Belly dance with Emma. Available at: http://emmabellydancer.co.uk/golden-age-samia-gamal-and-zeinat-olwi (Accessed: 17 March 2016).

Enan Egyptian Troupe (2007) Lucy – Egyptian Bellydancer – Nile Group Festival in Cairo 2007. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JnwrwyoKKJ8 (Accessed: 31 March 2016).

Eskandar, F. Y. (no date) Bamba Kashar, A Legend of Raqs Sharqi, Shira.net. Translated by P. Adum. Available at: http://www.shira.net/about/bamba-kashar-alkahira.htm (Accessed: 4 May 2016).

Esposito, D. (2011a) ‘Endangered Species’, Kisses from Kairo, 21 December. Available at: http://kissesfromkairo.blogspot.co.uk/2011/12/endangered-species.html#more (Accessed: 1 January 2016).

Esposito, D. (2011b) ‘My Story…’, Kisses from Kairo, 27 March. Available at: http://kissesfromkairo.blogspot.co.uk/2011/03/my-story.html#more (Accessed: 1 January 2016).

Esposito, D. (2012a) ‘Metamorphosis’, Kisses from Kairo, 30 January. Available at: http://kissesfromkairo.blogspot.co.uk/2012/01/metamorphosis_30.html#more (Accessed: 1 January 2016).

Esposito, D. (2012b) ‘The Lesser of Two Evils’, Kisses from Kairo, 1 June. Available at: http://kissesfromkairo.blogspot.co.uk/2012/06/the-lesser-of-two-evils.html#more (Accessed: 31 December 2015).

Esposito, D. (2014) ‘Always Let Your Music Be Your Guide: Choreography vs. Improvisation’, Kisses from Kairo, 7 August. Available at: http://kissesfromkairo.blogspot.co.uk/2014/08/always-let-your-music-be-yourguide.html#more (Accessed: 30 December 2015).

Esposito, D. (2015) ‘Competition Craze’, Kisses from Kairo, 15 February. Available at: http://kissesfromkairo.blogspot.co.uk/2015/02/competition-craze.html#more (Accessed: 30 December 2015).

Esposito, D. (2016) ‘Birth Control, Secularism, and the Belly Dance “Revival”’, Kisses from Kairo, 1 May. Available at: http://s1370.photobucket.com/user/LunaOfCairo/slideshow/?src=pb (Accessed: 3 July 2016).

Esposito, D. (no date) ‘Egyptian Weddings’, Kisses from Cairo. Available at: http://kissesfromkairo.blogspot.co.uk/2013/04/egyptian-weddings.html#more (Accessed: 30 December 2015).

EsquisseOrient (2012) Randa Kamel. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wEIoPnwulfw (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Evanoff, C. (2012) Nelly, Beloved Star of Egypt, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/cms/2012/02/05/caroline-interview-nellyfouad/#axzz441rPUTV5 (Accessed: 26 March 2016).


ahmy, F. (1987) The Creative Development of Mahmoud Reda, A Contemporary Egyptian Choreographer. University of California. Available at: http://faridafahmy.com/thesis.html.

Farnell, B. (1999) ‘It Goes Without Saying – But Not Always’, in Buckland, T. J. (ed.) Dance in the Field. Theory, Methods and Issues in Dance Ethnography. 1999 ed. edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd, pp. 145–160.

Farnell, B. (2000) ‘Getting Out of the Habitus: An Alternative Model of Dynamically Embodied Social Action’, The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 6(3). Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2661082.

Farnell, B. M. (1994) ‘Ethno-Graphics and the Moving Body’, Man, 29(4), p. 929. doi: 10.2307/3033975.

Farraj, J. et al. (2007) Arabic Musical Instruments, Maqam World. Available at: http://www.maqamworld.com/instruments.html (Accessed: 27 April 2017).

Fawzi, H. (1949) Bread and Salt.

Fawzi, H. (1955) Aziza.

Fawzi, H. (1958) I Love You, Hassan.

Fensham, R. and Kelada, O. (2012a) ‘Dancing the Transcultural across the South’, Journal of Intercultural Studies, 33(4), pp. 363–373. doi: 10.1080/07256868.2012.693818.

Fensham, R. and Kelada, O. (2012b) ‘Situating the body: choreographies of transmigration’, Journal of Intercultural Studies, 33(4), pp. 395–410.

Fereday, J. and Muir-Cochrane, E. (2006) ‘Demonstrating Rigor Using Thematic Analysis: A Hybrid Approach of Inductive and Deductive Coding and Theme Development’, International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5(1), pp. 80–92. doi: 10.1177/160940690600500107.

Fine, R. (2011) ‘Enlightenment cosmopolitanism: Western or universal?’, in Adams, D. and Tihanov, G. (eds) Enlightenment Cosmopolitanism. London: Legenda, pp. 153–70. Available at: http://www.icso.cl/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/R.-Fine-Enlightenmentcosmopolitanism.pdf (Accessed: 14 January 2017).

Flick, U. (2009) An Introduction to Qualitative Research. SAGE.

Foley, C. E. (2016) ‘Postcolonial Agency, Proactive Archiving, and Applied Ethnochoreology: The National Dance Archive of Ireland’, Český lid, 4(103), pp. 623–633. doi: 10.21104/CL.2017.4.05.

Forner, M. L. (1998) Ibrahim Farrah, The Best of Habibi. Available at: http://thebestofhabibi.com/vol-17-no-1-spring-1998/ibrahim-farrah/ (Accessed: 5 June 2016).

Fossen, C. (n.d.) Choreomundus – UCA – UR – SZTE, NTNU. Available at: https://www.ntnu.edu/studies/choreomundus (Accessed: 31 March 2019).

Foster, M. D. (2015) ‘Imagined UNESCOs: Interpreting Intangible Cultural Heritage on a Japanese Island’, in Foster, M. D. and Gilman, L. (eds) UNESCO on the Ground: Local Perspectives on Intangible Cultural Heritage. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 77–92.

Foster, R. (2016) ‘The Analysis of Movement – a current conception and the reasons for it.’, Movement, Dance & Drama. Magazine of the Laban Guild., pp. 5–7.

Fraser, K. (2014) Before They Were Belly Dancers: European Accounts of Female Entertainers in Egypt, 1760–1870. Kindle edition. McFarland & Co Inc. 389


Gamal, F. (1999) Dahlena, The Best of Habibi. Available at: http://thebestofhabibi.com/vol-17-no-4-dec-1999/dahlena/ (Accessed: 27 March 2016).

Getz, C. (no date) Kharmine tells of Sol Bloom for the Gilded Serpent, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/art40/CharmaineSolBloom.htm (Accessed: 6 June 2016).

Giddens, A. (1984) The constitution of society: outline of the theory of structuration. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]: Polity Press.

Giddens, A. (1990) The Consequences of Modernity. Stanford University Press. Polity Press.

Giddens, A. (1991) Modernity and Self-identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Cambridge, U.K.: Polity Press.

Giddens, A. (1998) The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy. Reprint edition. Malden, Mass: Polity.

Giddens, A. (2011) Runaway world. Profile books.

Gilman, L. (2015) ‘Demonic or Cultural Treasure? Local Perspectives on Vimbuza, Intangible Cultural Heritage, and UNESCO in Malawi’, in Foster, M. D. and Gilman, L. (eds) UNESCO on the Ground: Local Perspectives on Intangible Cultural Heritage. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 59–76.

Giurchescu, A. (2001) ‘The Power of Dance and Its Social and Political Uses’, Yearbook for Traditional Music, 33, pp. 109–121.

Giurchescu, A. and Torp, L. (1991) ‘Theory and Methods in Dance Research: A European Approach to the Holistic Study of Dance’, Yearbook for Traditional Music, 23, pp. 1–10.

Goffman, E. (1990) The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New Ed edition. London: Penguin.

Golden Age Choreographies (no date) ‘Golden-age-choreographies’. Available at: http://www.bhuz.com/belly-dance-traditions-styles/63273-golden-agechoreographies.html (Accessed: 1 June 2015).

Goodyear, A. (2011) Amera’s Dina DVD Reviewed, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/cms/2011/03/16/ameras-dina-dvdreviewed/#axzz44aPKYluj (Accessed: 3 April 2016).

Gore, G. (1999) ‘Textual Fields: Representation in Dance Ethnography’, in Buckland, T. J. (ed.) Dance in the Field. Theory, Methods and Issues in Dance Ethnography. 1999 ed. edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd, pp. 208–220.

Gore, G. and Grau, A. (2014) ‘Dance, cultural heritage, and the training of future heritage “managers”: Anthropological reflections’, in Fiskvik, A. M. and Stranden, M. (eds) (Re)Searching the Field: Festschrift in Honour of Egil Bakka. Fagbokforlaget, pp. 117–138. 390

Gore, G., Grau, A. and Koutsouba, M. (2016) ‘Advocacy, Austerity, and Internationalization in the Anthropology of Dance (Work in Progress)’, Congress on Research in Dance Conference Proceedings, 2016, pp. 180–190. doi: 10.1017/cor.2016.25.

Gow, L. (2006a) ‘Scottish Music’, BellyLorna, 15 October. Available at: http://bellylorna.blogspot.co.uk/2006/10/scottish-music.html (Accessed: 1 January 2016).

Gow, L. (2006b) ‘The Good Stuff’, BellyLorna, 18 September. Available at: http://bellylorna.blogspot.co.uk/2006/09/good-stuff.html (Accessed: 1 January 2016).

Gow, L. (no date) ‘BellyLorna’. Available at: http://bellylorna.blogspot.com/ (Accessed: 6 July 2016).

Graeff, N. (2014) ‘Experiencing Music and Intangible Cultural Heritage: Some Thoughts on Safeguarding Music’s Intangible Dimension’, El oído pensante, 2(2), pp. 1–21.

Graeff, N. (2016) ‘Samba de Roda as Heritage: From samba in the living room to “Masterpiece of Humanity’’”’, Die Tonkunst, 10(4), pp. 409–417.

Gratton, C. and Jones, I. (2004) Research methods for sport studies. London; New York: Routledge.

Grau, A. (1993) ‘John Blacking and the Development of Dance Anthropology in the United Kingdom’, Dance Research Journal, 25(2), pp. 21–31.

Grau, A. (2007) ‘Dance, identity, and identification processes in the postcolonial world’, in Franco, S. and Nordera, M. (eds) Dance Discourses: Keywords in Dance Research. London ; New York: Routledge, pp. 189–207.

Grau, A. (2008) ‘Dance and the Shifting Sands of Multiculturalism’, in Munsi, U. S. (ed.) Dance: Transcending Borders. New Delhi: Tulika, pp. 233–252.
Grau, A. (2011) ‘Dancing bodies, spaces/places and the senses: A cross-cultural investigation’, Journal of Dance and Somatic Practices, 3(1), pp. 5–24. doi: 10.1386/jdsp.3.1-2.5_1.

Green, A. (2015) ‘Sequins and Shimmies: Stars of Dance Spotlight: Naima Akef’, Sequins and Shimmies, 1 September. Available at: http://alessandraraqs.blogspot.com/2015/09/stars-of-dance-spotlight-naima-akef.html (Accessed: 19 March 2016).

Grinyer, A. (2009) ‘The anonymity of research participants: Assumptions, ethics, and practicalities’, Pan, 12(1), pp. 49–58.

Guba, E. G. and Lincoln, Y. S. (1994) ‘Competing paradigms in qualitative research’, in Denzin, N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S. (eds) Handbook of qualitative research, pp. 105–117. Available at: http://steinhardtapps.es.its.nyu.edu/create/courses/3311/reading/10guba_lincoln_94.pdf (Accessed: 18 January 2017).


Habiba (no date) Raqia Hassan to the Rescue, Egyptian Academy of Oriental Dance. Available at: http://egyptianacademy.com/jml2/raqia-hassan (Accessed: 8 April 2016).

Hallett, R. E. and Barber, K. (2014) ‘Ethnographic Research in a Cyber Era’, Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 43(3), pp. 306–330. doi: 10.1177/0891241613497749.

Hammersley, M. (2013) What is qualitative research? London: Bloomsbury.

Handler, R. (1986) ‘Authenticity’, Anthropology Today, 2(1), p. 2. doi: 10.2307/3032899.

Handler, R. and Linnekin, J. (1984) ‘Tradition, Genuine or Spurious’, The Journal of American Folklore, 97(385), p. 273. doi: 10.2307/540610.

Hanna, J. L. (1983) The Performer-Audience Connection: Emotion to Metaphor in Dance and Society. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Hanna, J. L. (1999) ‘Dance and Emotion’, in Levinson, D., Ponzetti, J. J., and Jorgensen, P. F. (eds) Encyclopedia of Human Emotions. New York: Macmillan Library Reference, pp. 171–177.

Hanna, P. (2012) ‘Using internet technologies (such as Skype) as a research medium: a research note’, Qualitative Research, 12(2), pp. 239–242. doi: 10.1177/1468794111426607.

Harrison, R. (2010) ‘What is heritage?’, in Understanding the politics of heritage. Manchester University Press, pp. 5–42.

Hashimoto, H. (2003) ‘Between Preservation and Tourism: Folk Performing Arts in Contemporary Japan’, Asian Folklore Studies, 62(2), pp. 225–236.

Hassan, R. (no date) Ahlan wa Salan Festival, Ahlan wa Salan Festival. Available at: http://www.raqiahassan.net/ (Accessed: 23 June 2016).

Hawkes, J. (2001) The Fourth Pillar of Sustainability: Culture’s Essential Role in Public Planning. Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd.

Haynes-Clark, J. L. (2010) American belly dance and the invention of the new exotic: Orientalism, feminism, and popular culture. Master of Arts. Portland State University. Available at: http://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/open_access_etds/20/ (Accessed: 28 September 2015).

Heath, C., Hindmarsh, J. and Luff, P. (2010) Video in Qualitative Research (Introducing Qualitative Methods series): Analysing Social Interaction in Everyday Life. 1 edition. Los Angeles: Sage Publications Ltd.

Heidegger, M. (1971) Poetry, language, thought. 20. print. Translated by A. Hofstadter. New York: Perennical Classics.
Hendry, J. (2003) ‘An ethnographer in the global arena: globography perhaps?’, Global Networks, 3(4), pp. 497–512.
Hendry, J. (2008) An Introduction to Social Anthropology: Sharing our Worlds. Second. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
Hernàndez i Martí, G. M. (2006) ‘The Deterritorialization of Cultural Heritage in a Globalized Modernity’, Transfer: Journal of Contemporary Culture, (1), pp. 92–107.

Hesse-Biber, S. and Griffin, A. J. (2012) ‘Internet-Mediated Technologies and Mixed Methods Research: Problems and Prospects’, Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 7(1), pp. 43–61. doi: 10.1177/1558689812451791.

Hilal, S. (no date) Suraya Hilal, Suraya Hilal Dance Company. Available at: http://www.hilaldance.com/suraya-hilal-dance-company/suraya-hilal.php (Accessed: 13 November 2016).

Hilgers, M. (2009) ‘Habitus, Freedom, and Reflexivity’, Theory & Psychology, 19(6), pp. 728–755. doi: 10.1177/0959354309345892.

Hill, J., Moore, K. and Wood, J. (eds) (2012) Sport, History, and Heritage: Studies in Public Representation. Woodbridge, UK ; Rochester, NY: Boydell Press.

Hobsbawm, E. J. and Ranger, T. O. (1992) The invention of tradition. Canto ed]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hodgens, P. (1988) ‘Interpreting the dance’, in Adshead, J. (ed.) Dance analysis: theory and practice. London: Dance Books, pp. 60–89.

Holliday, A. (2007) Doing and writing qualitative research. 2nd ed. London ; Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Hookway, N. (2008) ‘`Entering the blogosphere’: some strategies for using blogs in social research’, Qualitative Research, 8(1), pp. 91–113. doi: 10.1177/1468794107085298.

Horton Fraleigh, S. (1995) Dance and the Lived Body. New Ed edition. Pittsburgh; Chicago: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Horton Fraleigh, S. (2004) Dancing Identity: Metaphysics in Motion. Pittsburgh, Pa: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Horton Fraleigh, S. and Hanstein, P. (1999) Researching Dance. Evolving Modes of Inquiry. Edited by S. Horton Fraleigh. London: Dance Books Ltd.

Howard, P. (2003) Heritage: management, interpretation, identity. London: Continuum.

Howard, P. (2010) ‘The Rise of Heritage’, Asian Anthropology, 9(1), pp. 1–27. doi: 10.1080/1683478x.2010.10552593.


Ibsen al Faruqi, L. (1978) ‘Dance as an Expression of Islamic Culture’, Dance Research Journal, 10(2), p. 6. doi: 10.2307/1477998.

ICOMOS (1964) International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites (the Venice Charter 1964). Available at: http://www.icomos.org/charters/venice_e.pdf.

ICTM (no date) ICTM Study Group on Ethnochoreology. Available at: http://www.ictmusic.org/group/ethnochoreology.

INTELLECT FOCUS (2013) Egypte/ Naima Akef. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FbMwBCQx5lw (Accessed: 2 June 2016).

Isar, Y. R. (2011) ‘Unesco and Heritage: Global Doctrine, Global Practice’, inIsar, Y. R. and Anheier, H. K. (eds) Heritage, memory and identity. London: Sage Publications Ltd (The Culture and Globalization Series, 4), pp. 39–52.

Isar, Y. R., Anheier, H. K. and Viejo-Rose, D. (2011) ‘Heritage, memory and identity’, in Isar, Y. R. and Anheier, H. K. (eds) The Culture and Globalization Series. London: Sage Publications Ltd, pp. 1–20.


Jackson, M. (1996) ‘Introduction: Phenomenology, Radical Empiricism, and Anthropological Critique’, in Jackson, M. (ed.) Things As They Are: New Directions in Phenomenological Anthropology. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 1–50.

Japan (1950) ‘Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties (1950), Japan’. Available at: http://www.unesco.org/culture/natlaws/media/pdf/japan/japan_lawprotectionculturalpr operty_engtof.pdf (Accessed: 10 January 2017).

Japanese Agency for Cultural Affairs and UNESCO (2004) ‘The Yamato Declaration on Integrated approaches for Safeguarding Tangible and Intangible Cultural Heritage’. Available at: https://australia.icomos.org/wp-content/uploads/Yamato_Declaration.pdf (Accessed: 18 September 2018).

Jarmakani, A. (2004) ‘Dancing the Hootchy Kootchy: The Bellydancer as the Embodiment of Socio-Cultural Tensions’, The Arab Studies Journal, 12/13(2/1), pp. 124–139.

Jarmakani, A. (2008) Imagining Arab womanhood: the cultural mythology of veils, harems, and belly dancers in the U.S. 1st ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Jawad, F. (no date) Samya Gamaal – the queen of raqs sharki, Belly Dance Museum. Available at: http://belly-dance.org/samia-gamal.html (Accessed: 17 March 2016).

Joana Saahirah (2014) Tarab by Joana Saahirah of Cairo. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=md9pdeS6Q7Y (Accessed: 12 April 2016).

Johnson Jones, E. J. (1999) ‘The Choreographic Notebook: a Dynamic Documentation of the Choreographic Process of Kokuma Dance Theatre, an African-Caribbean Dance Company’, in Buckland, T. J. (ed.) Dance in the Field. Theory, Methods and Issues in Dance Ethnography. 1999 ed. edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd, pp. 100–110.

Joncheere, A. (2015) ‘Intangible inventions: the Kalbeliya gypsy dance form, from its creation to UNESCO recognition’, Archiv Orientalni, 83(1), p. 71.


Kaeppler, A. L. (1972) ‘Method and Theory in Analyzing Dance Structure with an Analysis of Tongan Dance’, Ethnomusicology, 16(2), pp. 173–217.

Kaeppler, A. L. (2001) ‘Dance and the Concept of Style’, Yearbook for Traditional Music, 33, pp. 49–63.

Kahn, C. H. (1981) The art and thought of Heraclitus. An edition of the fragments with translation and commentary. 1981st edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kapchan, D. A. (1994) ‘Moroccan Female Performers Defining the Social Body’, The Journal of American Folklore, 107(423), pp. 82–105.

Karayanni, S. S. (2004) Dancing fear & desire: race, sexuality, and imperial politics in Middle Eastern dance. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press (Cultural studies series).

Karayanni, S. S. (2009) ‘Sacred Embodiment: Fertility Ritual, Mother Goddess, and Cultures of Belly Dance’, Religion and the Arts, 13(4), pp. 448–463. doi: 10.1163/107992609X12524941449921.

Karayanni, S. S. (no date) Stavros tells of Tito Seif for the Gilded Serpent, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/art44/stavrostito.htm (Accessed: 12 April 2016).

Karoblis, G. (2013) ‘Dance, Love, and National Awakening in Late Nineteenth-Century Lithuania’, Journal of Baltic Studies, 44(3), pp. 395–406. doi: 10.1080/01629778.2013.775854.

Kaylo, J. (2009) ‘Anima and animus embodied: Jungian gender and Laban Movement Analysis’, Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy, 4(3), pp. 173–185.

Kealiinohomoku, J. W. (1970) ‘An Anthropologist Looks at Ballet as a Form of Ethnic Dance’, in What is Dance? Readings in Theory and Criticism. Oxford: OUP, pp. 533–549.

Kealiinohomoku, J. W. (1992) ‘Gertrude Prokosch Kurath’, Dance Research Journal, 24(2), p. 70.

Kealiinohomoku, J. W. (2001) ‘The Study of Dance in Culture: A Retrospective for a New Perspective’, Dance Research Journal, 33(1), pp. 90–91.

Kearney, A. (2008) ‘Intangible cultural heritage. Global awareness and local interest’, in Smith, L., Akagawa, N., and Smith, L. (eds) Intangible Heritage. Taylor & Francis (Key Issues in Cultural Heritage), pp. 209–225.

Keft-Kennedy, V. (2005) ‘Representing the belly-dancing body: feminism, orientalism, and the grotesque’. Available at: http://ro.uow.edu.au/theses/843/ (Accessed: 28 September 2015).

Kelly, B. (2013) ‘“I mean, what is a Pakeha New Zealander’s national dance? We don’t have one”. Belly dance and transculturation in New Zealand.’, in McDonald, C., SellersYoung, B., and Sellers-Young, B. (eds) Belly dance around the world: new communities, performance and identity. McFarland & Co Inc, pp. 138–151.

Kenny, E. (2007) ‘Bellydance in the Town Square: Leaking peace through Tribal Style Identity’, Western Folklore, pp. 301–327.

King, N. and Horrocks, C. (2010) Interviews in Qualitative Research. 1 edition. Los Angeles: Sage Publications Ltd.

Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, B. (1995) ‘Theorizing Heritage’, Ethnomusicology, 39(3), pp. 367– 380.

Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, B. (2004) ‘Intangible Heritage as Metacultural Production’, Museum International, 56(1–2), pp. 52–64.

Koritz, A. (2003) ‘Dancing the Orient for England: Maud Allan’s The Vision of Salome’, in Desmond, J. C. (ed.) Meaning in Motion. New Cultural Studies of Dance. III. Duke University Press, pp. 133–152.

Koutsouba, M. (1999) ‘“Outsider” in an “Inside” World, or Dance Ethnography at Home’, in Buckland, T. J. (ed.) Dance in the Field. Theory, Methods and Issues in Dance Ethnography. 1999 ed. edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd, pp. 186–195.

Kozinets, R. V. (2009) Netnography: doing ethnographic research online. London: SAGE.

Kraus, R. (2009) ‘Straddling the sacred and secular: Creating a spiritual experience through belly dance’, Sociological Spectrum, 29(5), pp. 598–625.

Kraus, R. (2010) ‘They Danced in the Bible: Identity Integration among Christian Women Who Belly Dance’, Sociology of Religion, 71(4), pp. 457–482. doi: 10.1093/socrel/srq077.

Kraus, R. (2014) ‘Becoming a belly dancer: gender, the life course and the beginnings of a serious leisure career’, Leisure Studies, 33(6), pp. 565–579. doi: 10.1080/02614367.2013.833284.

Kumar, R. (2011) Research Methodology. A Step by Step Guide for Beginners. 3rd edn. SAGE.

Kymlicka, W. (2012) Multiculturalism: Success, Failure and the Future. Washington DC: Migration Policy Institute. Available at: http://www.migrationpolicy.org/sites/default/files/publications/TCM-MulticulturalismWeb.pdf (Accessed: 14 January 2017).

Kyria Dance (2014) soraya egyptian belly dance performance 02 drum solo. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yICjZxRlvHc (Accessed: 7 July 2016).


Lapadat, J. C. and Lindsay, A. C. (1999) ‘Transcription in Research and Practice: From Standardization of Technique to Interpretive Positionings’, Qualitative Inquiry, 5(1), pp. 64–86. doi: 10.1177/107780049900500104.

Laukkanen, A. (2003) ‘Stranger fetishism and cultural responsibility in transnational dance forms. Case: Oriental dance in Finland’, in 5th European Feminist Research Conference: Gender and Power in the New Europe, Lund University, Sweden. Available at: http://iiav.nl/epublications/2003/gender_and_power/5thfeminist/paper_620.pdf (Accessed: 28 September 2015).

LebDancer (2015) Nessa Lil Shetaa, 1974. Available at: http://vimeo.com/106608805.

Lieblich, A., Tuval-Mashiach, R. and Zilber, T. (1998) Narrative Research: Reading, Analysis, and Interpretation. 1 edition. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications, Incorporated

liviapj (2009a) Lebanese Dancer Nadia Gamal Zills and Assaya 1/2. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YqlnZtChZCw (Accessed: 26 March 2016).

liviapj (2009b) Nadia Gamal Veil and tambourine dance 2/2. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sLZNRMHzTEo (Accessed: 26 March 2016).

liviapj (2012) Nadia Gamal – A Legend in Subtitles (Movie Biography). Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QuRldLkSj10 (Accessed: 26 March 2016).

Lo Iacono, V. (2013a) ‘Dancing to live music – performance tips and advice.’, worldbellydance.com, 12 March. Available at: https://www.worldbellydance.com/dancingto-live-music/ (Accessed: 6 July 2016).

Lo Iacono, V. (2013b) ‘The Annual UK Belly Dance Congress.’, worldbellydance.com, 23 February. Available at: https://www.worldbellydance.com/uk-congress/ (Accessed: 23 June 2016).

Lo Iacono, V. (2014) ‘Egyptian Baladi and Shaabi dance styles. Traditional dance in Egypt.’, worldbellydance.com, 18 February. Available at: https://www.worldbellydance.com/baladi-and-shaabi/ (Accessed: 20 December 2016).

Lo Iacono, V. (2015) Research on Egyptian raqs sharqi information sheet, worldbellydance.com. Available at: https://www.worldbellydance.com/researchinformation/ (Accessed: 17 August 2016).

Lo Iacono, V. (2016) ‘World Dance and Arts with Iraqi dance Kawliya also called Kawleeya.’, worldbellydance.com, 11 April. Available at: https://www.worldbellydance.com/iraqi-dance-kawliya/ (Accessed: 15 June 2016).

Lo Iacono, V. (no date) ‘Belly Dance Book, DVD and CD reviews.’, worldbellydance.com. Available at: https://www.worldbellydance.com/reviews/ (Accessed: 30 April 2016).

Lo Iacono, V. and Brown, D. H. K. (2016) ‘Beyond Binarism: Exploring a Model of Living Cultural Heritage for Dance’, The Journal of the Society for Dance Research, 34(1), pp. 84– 105. doi: 10.3366/drs.2016.0147.

Lo Iacono, V., Symonds, P. A. and Brown, D. H. K. (2016) ‘Skype as a Tool for Qualitative Research Interviews’, Sociological Research Online, 21(2). Available at: http://www.socresonline.org.uk/21/2/12.html.

Logan, W. (2012) ‘Cultural diversity, cultural heritage and human rights: towards heritage management as human rights-based cultural practice’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 18(3), pp. 231–244. doi: 10.1080/13527258.2011.637573.

Logan, W. S. (2007) ‘Closing Pandora’s box: human rights conundrums in cultural heritage protection.’, in Silverman, H. and Ruggles, D. F. (eds) Cultural Heritage and Human Rights. New York: Springer, pp. 33–52. Available at: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-0-387-71313-7_2 (Accessed: 4 October 2015).

Loiacono, V. and Fallon, J. M. (2018) ‘Intangible Cultural Heritage Beyond Borders: Egyptian Bellydance (Raqs Sharqi) as a Form of Transcultural Heritage’, Journal of Intercultural Studies, 39(3), pp. 286–304. doi: 10.1080/07256868.2018.1463842.

Long, A. A. (2008) ‘The Concept of the Cosmopolitan in Greek & Roman Thought’, Daedalus, 137(3), pp. 50–58.

Lorius, C. (1996) ‘“Oh Boy, You Salt of the Earth”: Outwitting Patriarchy in Raqs Baladi’, Popular Music, 15(3), pp. 285–298.

Lowthorp, L. (2015) ‘Voices on the Ground: Kutiyattam, UNESCO, and the Heritage of Humanity’, in Foster, M. D. and Gilman, L. (eds) UNESCO on the Ground: Local Perspectives on Intangible Cultural Heritage. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 17–40.

Luciano-Adams, B. (no date) Raqia Hassan, Egyptian Academy of Oriental Dance. Available at: http://egyptianacademy.com/jml2/raqia-hassan (Accessed: 8 April 2016).

Lund, R., Panda, S. M. and Dhal, M. P. (2016) ‘Narrating spaces of inclusion and exclusion in research collaboration–researcher-gatekeeper dialogue’, Qualitative Research, 16(3), pp. 280–292.

lynetteserpent (2009) Gilded Serpent presents… Badia Masabni. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=26V9iOEw1co (Accessed: 24 February 2016).


MA Ethnochoreology – University of Limerick (no date). Available at: http://www.irishworldacademy.ie/postraduate-programmes/ma-ethnochoreology/.

Macaulay, M. (2004) ‘Training linguistics students for the realities of fieldwork’, Anthropological Linguistics, pp. 194–209.

Macchiarella, I. (2008) ‘“Anyway we just keep on with singing as we know”. Sardinian A Tenore Song after Unesco’s Proclamation’, in. 53rd annual meeting – Society for Ethnomusicology, Wisleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut – USA.

Mackrell, J. (1997) Reading dance. London: Michael Joseph.

Macmillan Dictionary – intangible – definition (2014). Available at: http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/intangible.

Maira, S. (2008) ‘Belly dancing: Arab-face, Orientalist feminism, and US empire’, American Quarterly, 60(2), pp. 317–345.

Maners, L. D. (2006) ‘Utopia, Eutopia, and E.U.-topia. Performance and Memory in Former Yugoslavia’, in Buckland, T. (ed.) Dancing from Past to Present: Nation, Culture, Identities. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 75–96.

Maoz, D. (2006) ‘The Mutual Gaze’, Annals of Tourism Research, 33(1), pp. 221–239. doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2005.10.010.

Margari, Z. N. (2016) ‘Dance Advocacy in the Age of Austerity: UNESCO’s Intangible Cultural Heritage Convention and the Case of Dance’, Congress on Research in Dance Conference Proceedings, 2016, pp. 240–250. doi: 10.1017/cor.2016.33.

Marhaba Belly Dance Festival Rome (2011) Raqia Hassan Belly Dance on Fadel Shaker Love Song. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rBcq__QwfRM (Accessed: 8 April 2016).

Marita Fahlén (2009) FIFI ABDOU at Mena House.Cairo-86. Part 2. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LweZOAUPUSU (Accessed: 30 March 2016).

Marita Fahlén (no date) NELLY FUAD Balady. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oRFKOU8sf4s (Accessed: 26 March 2016).

Markham, A. and Buchanan, E. (2012) Ethical decision-making and internet research. AoIR Ethics Working Committee. Available at: http://pure.au.dk/portal/files/55543125/aoirethics2.pdf (Accessed: 4 October 2015).

Marlyz, N. (2010) A Fan Speaks with Nagwa Fu’ad, Cairo, Egypt, 1984, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/cms/2010/01/24/najianagwa/#axzz43A4CFugh (Accessed: 21 March 2016).

Marshall, C. and Rossman, G. B. (2010) Designing qualitative research. 5th ed. London: SAGE.

Mason, J. (2002) Qualitative researching. 2nd ed. London: Sage.

Mauss, M. (1992) ‘Techniques of the Body’, in Crary, J. and Kwinter, S. (eds) Incorporations. New York: Urzone Inc (Zone, 6), pp. 455–477.

Mauthner, N. S. and Doucet, A. (2003) ‘Reflexive Accounts and Accounts of Reflexivity in Qualitative Data Analysis’, Sociology, 37(3), pp. 413–431. doi: 10.1177/00380385030373002.

Maya (2011) Fifi Abdou. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JVrdjrGzLQE (Accessed: 30 March 2016).

Maykut, P. S. and Morehouse, R. E. (1994) Beginning Qualitative Research: A Philosophic and Practical Guide. Falmer Press.

McDonald, C. (2010) Belly dance and Glocalisation: Constructing Gender in Egypt and on the Global Stage. PhD. University of Exeter.

McDonald, C. E. (2013) Belly Dance Around the World: New Communities, Performance and Identity. Edited by B. Sellers-Young. Jefferson, North Carolina ; London: McFarland & Co Inc.

McDonald, C. E. and Sellers-Young, B. (2013) Belly dance around the world: new communities, performance and identity. Edited by C. McDonald. Jefferson, North Carolina ; London: McFarland & Co Inc.

McDonald, G. K. (2000) Substantive and Procedural Aspects of International Criminal Law: The Experience of International and National Courts: Materials. BRILL.

McDowell, J. H. (2010) ‘Rethinking Folklorization in Ecuador: Multivocality in the Expressive Contact Zone’, Western Folklore, pp. 181–209.

Meho, L. I. (2006) ‘E-mail interviewing in qualitative research: A methodological discussion’, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(10), pp. 1284–1295. doi: 10.1002/asi.20416.

Merleau-Ponty, M. (1992) Phenomenology of Perception. 3rd edn. Translated by C. Smith. London, (New Jersey): Routledge, Humanities Press (Routledge Classics).

el-Messiri, S. (1978) Ibn al-balad : a concept of Egyptian identity. Leiden: Brill.

Misiroglu, G. (2015) American Countercultures: An Encyclopedia of Nonconformists, Alternative Lifestyles, and Radical Ideas in U.S. History: An Encyclopedia of Nonconformists, … and Radical Ideas in U.S. History. Routledge.

Moawad, F. (1968) Fouad Moawad Interviews Samia Gamal, 1968, Shira.net. Translated by P. Adum. Available at: http://www.shira.net/about/Interview-samia-gamal-1968kawakeb.htm (Accessed: 17 March 2016).

Moe, A. M. (2012) ‘Beyond the belly: An appraisal of middle eastern dance (aka belly dance) as leisure’, Journal of Leisure Research, 44(2), p. 201.

Moe, A. M. (2014) ‘Sequins, Sass, and Sisterhood: An Exploration of Older Women’s Belly Dancing’, Journal of women & aging, 26(1), pp. 39–65.

Mohamad, Z. (2012) ‘Report: The Mak Yong Spiritual Dance Heritage Conference, Performances, and Workshops’, Asian Theatre Journal, 29(2), pp. 445–460. doi: 10.1353/atj.2012.0050.

Molthen, S. F. (no date) Sausan tells of Taheyia Karioka for the Gilded Serpent, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/art43/sausanTK.htm (Accessed: 18 March 2016).

Moretta, J. A. (2017) The Hippies: A 1960s History. Jefferson, North Carolina:McFarland & Co Inc.

Morris, J. R. (2009) The Time of My Life: Remembrances of the 20th Century. Dog Ear Publishing.

Munjeri, D. (2004) ‘Tangible and Intangible Heritage: from difference to convergence’, Museum International, 56(1–2), pp. 12–19.

Munsi, U. S. (2012) ‘The Changing Stage: Chhau as an Intangible Cultural Heritage’, The International Journal of Arts, Culture & Heritage (iJACH), 1(2012), pp. 161–178.

Muray, N. (1926) George Eastman House Ruth St. Denis Series, Eastman Museum. Available at: http://www.geh.org/ar/celeb/m197701892459_ful.html#topofimage (Accessed: 8 December 2016).

Murthy, D. (2008) ‘Digital Ethnography: An Examination of the Use of New Technologies for Social Research’, Sociology, 42(5), pp. 837–855. doi: 10.1177/0038038508094565.


Naguib, S. (2008) ‘Heritage in Movement: Rethinking Cultural Borrowings in the Mediterranean’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 14(5), pp. 467–480. doi: 10.1080/13527250802284891.

Naguib, S.-A. (2013) ‘Museums, Diasporas and the Sustainability of Intangible Cultural Heritage’, Sustainability, 5(5), pp. 2178–2190. doi: 10.3390/su5052178.

Nahachewsky, A. (1995) ‘Participatory and Presentational Dance as Ethnochoreological Categories’, Dance Research Journal, 27(1), p. 1. doi: 10.2307/1478426.

NCCPE (no date) What is public engagement?, National Coordinating Centre for Public Engagement. Available at: https://www.publicengagement.ac.uk/explore-it/what-publicengagement (Accessed: 6 May 2017).

Nearing, E. (2004) Sirat Al-Ghawazi – Part 2, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/enearing/edwinaghawazich2.htm (Accessed: 2 May 2016).

Nearing, E. (2012a) Sohayr Zaki, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/cms/2012/03/22/edwina-nearing-sohayrzaki/#axzz40udJ7V1J (Accessed: 28 March 2016).

Nearing, E. (2012b) The End of the Banat Mazin?, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/cms/2012/02/17/edwina-nearing-end-of-banatmazin/#axzz40udJ7V1J (Accessed: 2 May 2016).

Nelly Mazloum (no date) Nelly Mazloum – Nelly Mazloum Mediterranean Archaic Dances Research Institute – MADRI -, Nelly Mazloum. Available at: http://www.nellymazloummadri.org.gr/nelly-mazloum.html (Accessed: 24 February 2016).

Ness, S. A. (1992) Body, Movement, and Culture: Kinesthetic and Visual Symbolism in a Philippine Community. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Newlove, J. and Dalby, J. (2003) Laban for All. London; New York: Nick Hern Books.

Nikočević, L. et al. (2012) ‘Discussion. Culture or Heritage? The Problem of Intangibility’, Etnološka tribina: Journal of Croatian Ethnological Society, 42(35), pp. 57–112.

Nil Menajerlik (2009) Tito Seif – Belly Dancer. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hnc4DapuE_4 (Accessed: 22 December 2016).

Nile Group Festival (no date) Nile Group Master Teachers Presentation. Available at: http://www.nilegroup.net/teachers.htm (Accessed: 2 July 2016).

Nimeera (no date) Sohair Zuki, Serpentine. Available at: http://www.serpentine.org/yasmin/SohairZuki.html (Accessed: 28 March 2016).

NormaDancer2 (2009) Lucy , Egyptian Belly Dancer, Lessa Fakir. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8hRIkIPFDHk (Accessed: 31 March 2016).

Novack, C. (1988) ‘Looking at Movement as Culture: Contact Improvisation to Disco’, TDR, 32(4), pp. 102–119

Novick, G. (2008) ‘Is there a bias against telephone interviews in qualitative research?’, Research in Nursing & Health, 31(4), pp. 391–398. doi: 10.1002/nur.20259.


Oliver, D. G., Serovich, J. M. and Mason, T. L. (2005) ‘Constraints and Opportunities with Interview Transcription: Towards Reflection in Qualitative Research’, Social Forces, 84(2), pp. 1273–1289. doi: 10.1353/sof.2006.0023.

Oriental Marathon Festival (no date) Sahar Samara, Oriental Marathon Festival. Available at: http://oriental-marathon-festival.com/professeursteachers/orit%20maftsir/sahar%20samara/index.html (Accessed: 11 April 2016).

OrientExpressTV (2010) Randa Kamel – show (Nile Maxim) & interview. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bIkmQlYinQc (Accessed: 8 April 2016).

O’Shea, J. (2003) ‘At Home in the World?: The Bharatanatyam Dancer As Transnational Interpreter’, TDR, 47(1), pp. 176–186.

Oxford Dictionaries – intangible (2014). Available at: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/intangible.


Parker (2000) Structuration. Buckingham ; Phildelphia, Pa: Open University Press.

Patton, M. Q. (2002) Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods. 3rd Revised edition edition. Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Pelegrini, S. C. A. (2008) ‘A gestão do patrimônio imaterial brasileiro na contemporaneidade’, História (São Paulo), 27(2), pp. 145–173. doi: 10.1590/S010190742008000200008.

Petralia, P. (2011) ‘Here, There and In-Between: Rehearsing over Skype’, Performance Research, 16(3), pp. 113–116. doi: 10.1080/13528165.2011.606036.

Pieterse, J. N. (1996) ‘Globalization as Hybridization’, in Featherstone, M., Lash, S., and Robertson, R. (eds) Global Modernities. 1 edition. London ; Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications, Incorporated, pp. 45–68.

Pietrobruno, S. (2013) ‘YouTube and the social archiving of intangible heritage’, new media & society, 15(8), pp. 1259–1276

Pietrobruno, S. (2014) ‘Between narratives and lists: performing digital intangible heritage through global media’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 20(7–8), pp. 742–759. doi: 10.1080/13527258.2013.807398.

Pietrobruno, S. (2016) ‘YouTube flow and the transmission of heritage: The interplay of users, content, and algorithms’, Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies. doi: 10.1177/1354856516680339.

Pink, S. (2006) Doing Visual Ethnography, Second Edition: Images, Media and Representation in Research. 2 edition. London ; Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE Publications Ltd

Plummer, K. (2001) Documents of Life 2: An Invitation to a Critical Humanism. Revised Edition edition. London: Sage Publications UK.

Potuoğlu-Cook, Ö. (2006) ‘Beyond the glitter: Belly dance and neoliberal gentrification in Istanbul’, Cultural Anthropology, 21(4), pp. 633–660.

Preston-Dunlop, V. (2010) Dance and the Performative. Dance Books Ltd.

Preston-Dunlop, V. and Sanchez-Colberg, A. (2010) ‘Current modes of enquiry in choreological practice.’, in Dance and the Performative. Dance Books Ltd, pp. 125–133.

PrinceKayammer (2013) OLD IS GOLD VOL.II NELLY FOUAD EGYPTIAN BELLYDANCER ‘RAKS NELLY’ FULL ROUTINE. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MTkwrx5uVRQ (Accessed: 26 March 2016).

profilerk (no date) Egytpian belly dance legend Tahia Karioka. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NEZwhWSXocg&index (Accessed: 18 March 2016).

Prokosch Kurath, G. (1960) ‘Panorama of Dance Ethnology’, Current Anthropology, 1(3), pp. 233–254.

Purkayastha, P. (2014) Indian Modern Dance, Feminism and Transnationalism. 1st ed. 2014 edition. Palgrave Macmillan.


Rakstar (no date) Tito Seif, Rakstar. Available at: http://www.rakstar.net/tito_seif_1.html (Accessed: 12 April 2016).

Ramsey, K. (2003) ‘Vodou, Nationalism, and Performance: the Staging of Folklore in midtwentieth-century Haiti’, in Desmond, J. C. (ed.) Meaning in Motion. New Cultural Studies of Dance. III. Duke University Press, pp. 345–378.

Ramzy, H. (no date a) Hossam Ramzy – The Stars of Egypt ® – Hager Hamdy, Hossam Ramzy. Available at: http://www.hossamramzy.com/stars/starsofegypt_hager.htm (Accessed: 21 March 2016).

Ramzy, H. (no date b) Hossam Ramzy – The Stars of Egypt ® – Naima Akef, Hossam Ramzy. Available at: http://www.hossamramzy.com/stars/starsofegypt_naima.htm (Accessed: 19 March 2016).

Raqs of Course – Egyptian Dance Festival (no date) Raqs of Course. Available at: http://www.raqsofcourse.com/about-us.html (Accessed: 8 April 2016).

Reason, M. and Reynolds, D. (2010) ‘Kinesthesia, empathy, and related pleasures: An inquiry into audience experiences of watching dance’, Dance Research Journal, 42(2), pp. 49–75.

Reed, S. A. (1998) ‘The Politics and Poetics of Dance’, Annual Review of Anthropology, 27, pp. 503–532.

Reeves, C. L. (2010) ‘A difficult negotiation: fieldwork relations with gatekeepers’, Qualitative Research, 10(3), pp. 315–331. doi: 10.1177/1468794109360150.

Ritzer, G. (2008) The McDonaldization of society. 5th ed. Los Angeles, Calif London: Pine Forge Press.

Robertson, R. (1996) ‘Glocalization: Time-Space and Homogeneity-Heterogeneity’, in Featherstone, M., Lash, S., and Robertson, R. (eds) Global Modernities. 1 edition. London ; Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications, Incorporated, pp. 25–44.

Robertson, R. (2012) ‘Globalisation or glocalisation?’, Journal of International Communication, 18(2), pp. 191–208. doi: 10.1080/13216597.2012.709925.

Robinson, D. and Packman, J. (2014) ‘Chula in the City: Traditions, Translations and Tactics in Brazilian Samba de Roda’, in Schiller, G. a

Rubidge, S. (eds) Choreographic Dwellings. Practising Place. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 114–135. Available at: http://link.springer.com/10.1057/9781137385673 (Accessed: 9 January 2017).

Robinson, D. and Packman, J. (2016) ‘Authenticty, Uplift, and Cultural Value in Bahian Samba Junino’, in Cook, S. C. and Dodds, S. (eds) Bodies of Sound: Studies Across Popular Music and Dance. Routledge, pp. 117–133.

Rodriguez, G. (2013) ‘Ibrahim Akef: el maestro de Dina y Naima Akef’, ESTUDIO GISELLE HABIBI, 13 July. Available at: https://unmundodeluz.wordpress.com/2013/07/13/ibrahimakef-el-maestro-de-dina-y-naima-akef/ (Accessed: 24 February 2016).

Rose, G. (2012) Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to Researching with Visual Materials. 3rd edn. London [etc.]: SAGE.

Rose, Y. (2006) Yosifah adores Lucy for the Gilded Serpent, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/art36/YoIluvLucy.htm (Accessed: 31 March 2016).

Roulston, K. (2009) Reflective interviewing: a guide to theory and practice. London: SAGE.

Roushdy, N. (2013) ‘What is baladi about al Raqs al-Baladi? Of the survival of belly dance in Egypt’, in McDonald, C., Sellers-Young, B., and Sellers-Young, B. (eds) Belly dance around the world: new communities, performance and identity. McFarland & Co Inc, pp. 17–31.

Rowe, W. and Schelling, V. (1991) Memory and Modernity: Popular Culture in Latin America. London ; New York: Verso.

Rowley, J. (2012) ‘Conducting research interviews’, Management Research Review, 35(3/4), pp. 260–271. doi: 10.1108/01409171211210154.

Ryan, G. W. and Bernard, H. R. (2003) ‘Techniques to Identify Themes’, Field Methods, 15(1), pp. 85–109. doi: 10.1177/1525822X02239569.


Saahirah, J. (2014) The Secrets of Egypt – Dance, Life and Beyond: A Journey of Death and Rebirth in the Country of the Pyramids. Place of publication not identified: AuthorHouseUK.

Said, E. (1999) Farewell to Tahia, The Best of Habibi. Available at: http://thebestofhabibi.com/vol-17-no-4-dec-1999/farewell-to-tahia/ (Accessed: 18 March 2016).

Said, E. W. (1979) Orientalism. 1st Vintage Books ed. New York: Vintage Books.

Sami, M. (no date) Interview with Taheya Carioca and Samia Gamal, Shira.net. Available at: http://www.shira.net/about/interview-tahia-n-samia.htm (Accessed: 14 March 2016).

Samir (2013) Randa Kamel Interview 2013 Very interesting. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tAv8qDncyiE (Accessed: 8 April 2016).

Sampson, H. and Thomas, M. (2003) ‘Risk and responsibility’, Qualitative Research, 3(2), pp. 165–189.

Sandelowski, M. (1998) ‘Writing a good read: Strategies for re-presenting qualitative data’, Research in Nursing & Health, 21(4), pp. 375–382.

Savigliano, M. E. (1995) ‘Whiny Ruffians and Rebellious Broads: Tango as a Spectacle of Eroticized Social Tension’, Theatre Journal, 47(1), pp. 83–104.

Schechner, R. (2013) Performance Studies: An Introduction. 3 edition. London; New York: Routledge.

Schmitt, T. M. (2008) ‘The UNESCO Concept of Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage: Its Background and Marrakchi Roots’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 14(2), pp. 95–111. doi: 10.1080/13527250701844019.

Schwandt, T. A. (1997) Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms. 1 edition. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Sciacca, M. (2015) ‘Maya Medwar | She’s Got Hips’, 12 February. Available at: http://shes-got-hips.com/tag/maya-medwar/ (Accessed: 15 June 2016).

Seaver, M. (2008) ‘Stepping into Footprints: Tradition and the Globalization of Irish Dance’, in Shapiro, S. B. (ed.) Dance in a World of Change Reflections on Globalization and Cultural Difference. Human Kinetics, pp. 3–15.

Sedlmeier, P., Weigelt, O. and Walther, E. (2011) ‘Music is in the Muscle: How Embodied Cognition May Influence Music Preferences’, Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 28(3), pp. 297–306. doi: 10.1525/mp.2011.28.3.297.

Seeger, A. (2009) ‘Lessons learned from the ICTM (NGO) evaluation of nominations for the UNESCO Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, 2001–5’, in Smith, L. and Akagawa, N. (eds) Intangible heritage. London ; New York: Routledge (Key issues in cultural heritage), pp. 112–128.

Seeger, A. (2015) ‘Understanding UNESCO: A Complex Organization with Many Parts and Many Actors’, in Foster, M. D. and Gilman, L. (eds) UNESCO on the Ground: Local Perspectives on Intangible Cultural Heritage. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 131–142.

Seitz, S. (2015) ‘Pixilated partnerships, overcoming obstacles in qualitative interviews via Skype: a research note’, Qualitative Research, p. 1468794115577011.

Selene, F. (no date) Fifi Abdou, Serpentine. Available at: http://www.serpentine.org/yasmin/FifiAbdou.html (Accessed: 31 March 2016).

Sellers-Young, B. (2016) Belly Dance, Pilgrimage and Identity. 1st ed. 2016 edition. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Senkovich, N. (2008) Masters of Egyptian Choreography Volume One, Randa Kamel. (Masters of Egyptian Choreography).

SerpentineVideo (2007) Exposition Universelle 1889: Rue du Caire & les Almees. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yftSkqGDlfM (Accessed: 25 February 2016).

Shams, A. (2016) ‘Fifi Abdou biography’, Egyptian BellyDance Styles. Available at: http://egyptianbellydancestyles.blogspot.com/2016/03/fifi-abdou.html (Accessed: 20 June 2016).

Shapiro, S. B. (2008) Dance in a World of Change Reflections on Globalization and Cultural Difference. Edited by S. B. Shapiro. Human Kinetics.

Sharif, N. (no date) Raqia Hassan, Egyptian Academy of Oriental Dance. Available at: http://egyptianacademy.com/jml2/raqia-hassan (Accessed: 8 April 2016).

Shay, A. (1999) ‘Parallel Traditions: State Folk Dance Ensembles and Folk Dance in “The Field”’, Dance Research Journal, 31(1), p. 29. doi: 10.2307/1478309.

Shay, A. (2006) ‘The Male Dancer in the Middle East and Central Asia’, Dance Research Journal, 38(1/2), pp. 137–162.

Shay, A. and Sellers-Young, B. (2003) ‘Belly Dance: Orientalism: Exoticism: Self-Exoticism’, Dance Research Journal, 35(1), pp. 13–37.

Shay, A. and Sellers-Young, B. (2005) Belly Dance: Orientalism, Transnationalism, And Harem Fantasy. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers Inc. (Bibliotheca Iranica. Performing Arts Series., 6).

Sheets-Johnstone, M. (2015) The Phenomenology of Dance. 15 Anv edition. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Shelaby, R. (2015) ‘Zanouba and Maya! | The Fez Documentary’, The Fez Documentary, 29 January. Available at: http://thefezdoc.com/zanouba-and-maya/ (Accessed: 15 June 2016).

Shems Dance (2011) Nadia Gamal – Nightclub Show. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ix1czDIm5GY (Accessed: 26 March 2016)

Shilling, C. (2005) The Body in Culture, Technology & Society. London: Sage Publications Ltd. (theory, Culture & Society).

Silverman, C. (2015) ‘Macedonia, UNESCO, and Intangible Cultural Heritage: The Challenging Fate of Teskoto’, in Foster, M. D. and Gilman, L. (eds) UNESCO on the Ground: Local Perspectives on Intangible Cultural Heritage. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 93–111.

Silverman, D. (2013) Doing qualitative research. Fourth edition. London: SAGE.

Silverman, H. and Ruggles, D. F. (eds) (2009) Intangible Heritage Embodied. New York, NY: Springer New York. Available at: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-1-4419-0072-2 (Accessed: 4 October 2015).

Simon, K. and Goodman, K. (1992) Cairo Unveiled Lucy part 2. (National Geographic’s Explorer Series). Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kp52dgmvhEo (Accessed: 31 March 2016).

Simon, K. and Goodman, K. (no date) Cairo Unveiled (1992). Available at: http://www.simongoodmanpictures.com/cairounveiled.html (Accessed: 31 March 2016).

Sklar, D. (1994) ‘Can Bodylore Be Brought to Its Senses?’, The Journal of American Folklore, 107(423), pp. 9–22.

Sklar, D. (2001) ‘Toward Cross-Cultural Conversation on Bodily Knowledge’, Dance Research Journal, 33(1), pp. 91–92.

Sklar, D. (2006) ‘Qualities of Memory. Two Dances of the Tortugas Fiesta, New Mexico’, in Buckland, T. (ed.) Dancing from Past to Present: Nation, Culture, Identities. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 97–122.

Skounti, A. (2008) ‘The authentic illusion. Humanity’s intangible cultural heritage, the Moroccan experience’, in Smith, L., Akagawa, N., and Smith, L. (eds) Intangible Heritage. Taylor & Francis (Key Issues in Cultural Heritage), pp. 74–92.

Skrbis, Z., Kendall, G. and Woodward, I. (2004) ‘Locating Cosmopolitanism: Between Humanist Ideal and Grounded Social Category’, Theory, Culture & Society, 21(6), pp. 115– 136. doi: 10.1177/0263276404047418.

Sloane Hirt, P. (2012) Meeting Tahia and Samia in 1977, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/cms/2012/05/15/pam-tahia-samia1977/#axzz43A4CFugh (Accessed: 17 March 2016).

Smith, A. L. (2008) Embodying Scotland: Identity, Cultural Policy, Dance. University of the West of Scotland.

Smith, L. (2006) Uses of heritage. New York: Routledge.

Smith, L. (2012) ‘The “doing” of heritage: heritage as performance’, in Jackson, A. and Kidd, J. (eds) Performing Heritage: Research, Practice and Innovation in Museum Theatre and Live Interpretation. Manchester University Press, pp. 69–81.

Smith, L. and Akagawa, N. (2008) ‘Intangible Heritage – Introduction’, in Smith, L., Akagawa, N., and Smith, L. (eds) Intangible Heritage. Taylor & Francis (Key Issues in Cultural Heritage), pp. 1–9.

Song, S. (2017) ‘Multiculturalism’, in Zalta, E. N. (ed.) The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Spring 2017. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Available at: https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2017/entries/multiculturalism/ (Accessed: 14 January 2017)

Sparkes, A. (1992a) Research in Physical Education and Sport: Exploring Alternative Visions. Falmer Press

Sparkes, A. (1992b) Research in Physical Education and Sport: Exploring Alternative Visions. Falmer Press.

Sparkes, A. (2002) Telling Tales in Sport and Physical Activity: A Qualitative Journey. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.

Sparkes, A. C. and Smith, B. (2014) Qualitative research methods in sport, exercise and health: from process to product. London: Routledge.

Stepputat, K. (2015) ‘Tango, the not Quite Intangible Cultural Heritage’, in Dunin, E. I. (ed.) Dance and narratives: dance as intangible and tangible cultural heritage : 28th Symposium of the ICTM Study Group on Ethnochoreology, 7-17 July 2014, Korčula, Croatia. Zagreb: Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Research, pp. 335–341.

Stewart, K. A. et al. (2009) ‘Risky Research. Investigating the “Perils” of Ethnography’, in Denzin, N. K. and Giardina, M. D. (eds) Qualitative Inquiry and Social Justice. Toward a Politics of Hope. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, pp. 198–216.

Stock, C. (2012) ‘Adaptation and Empathy: Intercultural Communication in a Choreographic Project’, Journal of Intercultural Studies, 33(4), pp. 445–462.

Sullivan, F. (2002) Sohair Zaki, The Best of Habibi. Available at: http://thebestofhabibi.com/vol-19-no-1-feb-2002/594-2/ (Accessed: 28 March 2016).

Sullivan, F. (2009) At Home With Fifi Abdou, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/cms/2009/07/29/yasminacfifi/#axzz1g12sY8Ft (Accessed: 30 March 2016).

Sullivan, F. (no date) Yasmina writes of Randa for the Gilded Serpent, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/art44/yasminaranda.htm (Accessed: 6 April 2016).

Sullivan, F. and Farouk, S. (2006) Journey of Desire. A Foreign Dancer in Cairo.

Sullivan, J. R. (2012) ‘Skype: An appropriate method of data collection for qualitative interviews?’, The Hilltop Review, 6(1), p. 10.

Szalai, M. et al. (2015) ‘A clinical study to assess the efficacy of belly dancing as a tool for rehabilitation in female patients with malignancies’, European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 19(1), pp. 60–65. doi: 10.1016/j.ejon.2014.07.009.


Taj, L. (2008) ‘Coffee with Raqia Hassan’, Dance News, 17 May. Available at: http://dancenews.blogspot.com/2008/05/coffee-with-raqia-hassan.html (Accessed: 23 June 2016).

Talaat, D. and Guibal, C. (2011) Ma liberté de danser : La dernière danseuse d’Egypte. Neuilly-sur-Seine: Michel Lafon.

Talja, S. and McKenzie, P. J. (2007) ‘Editors’ Introduction: Special Issue on Discursive Approaches to Information Seeking in Context’, The Library Quarterly, 77(2), pp. 97–108. doi: 10.1086/517839.

Taylor, K. (no date) Belly Dance Shows, Farida Adventures. Available at: http://www.faridaadventures.com/customised-cairo/belly-dance-shows.html (Accessed: 21 June 2016).

Teixeira, I. (2010) Os direitos humanos e a guerra: questão dos prisioneiros de guerra. Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Available at: https://run.unl.pt/handle/10362/4150 (Accessed: 9 January 2017).

The Fabulous Samia Gamal (2003). AFD.

The State of Victoria (2013) Types of Engagement, Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning. Available at: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/effectiveengagement/developing-an-engagement-plan/types-of-engagement (Accessed: 6 May 2017).

TheCaroVan (2014a) Banat Mazin (1967). Available at: https://vimeo.com/109361887 (Accessed: 7 May 2016).

TheCaroVan (2014b) DIna (1991) (multi costume), Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/107778489 (Accessed: 2 April 2016).

TheCaroVan (2014c) Dina and Saad, Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/107792501 (Accessed: 2 April 2016).

TheCaroVan (2014d) Dina-Hilton Cairo, Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/109905818 (Accessed: 2 April 2016).

TheCaroVan (2014e) Fifi Abdu (1968), Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/107238908 (Accessed: 30 March 2016).

TheCaroVan (2014f) Fifi Abdu Shisha Dance Part 1, Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/107701208 (Accessed: 30 March 2016).

TheCaroVan (2014g) Nagwa Fouad – ‘Set al Hosn’, Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/103694703 (Accessed: 22 March 2016).

TheCaroVan (2014h) Nagwa Fouad (1977), Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/107674253 (Accessed: 22 March 2016).

TheCaroVan (2014i) Naima Akef (1955) Aziza. Available at: https://vimeo.com/104735467 (Accessed: 18 March 2016).

TheCaroVan (2014j) Naima Akef (1957) ‘Tamr Henna’, Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/109781661 (Accessed: 18 March 2016).

TheCaroVan (2014k) Samia Gamal (1952). Available at: https://vimeo.com/109118375 (Accessed: 14 March 2016).

TheCaroVan (2014l) Samia Gamal (1963) on Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/104845689 (Accessed: 14 March 2016).

TheCaroVan (2014m) Soheir Zaki (1975), Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/104325726 (Accessed: 27 March 2016).

TheCaroVan (2014n) Taheya Karioka & Soad Hosni (1972) on Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/113987365 (Accessed: 14 March 2016).

TheCaroVan (2014o) Taheya Karioka (1945). Available at: https://vimeo.com/112451097 (Accessed: 14 March 2016).

TheCaroVan (2015a) Fifi Abdu (2000), Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/120732913 (Accessed: 30 March 2016).

TheCaroVan (2015b) Lucy, Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/132174141 (Accessed: 31 March 2016).

TheCaroVan (2015c) Lucy Part 1, Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/138816716 (Accessed: 31 March 2016).

TheCaroVan (2015d) Lucy Part 2, Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/138816717 (Accessed: 31 March 2016).

TheCaroVan (2015e) Mona al Said (1986), Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/122221002 (Accessed: 28 March 2016).

TheCaroVan (2015f) Nagwa Fouad in the Gulf (Part 1). Available at: https://vimeo.com/131322593 (Accessed: 18 December 2016).

TheCaroVan (2015g) Soheir Magdi (1960), Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/118355672 (Accessed: 1 April 2016).

TheCaroVan (2015h) Soheir Zaki (gold bedlah P1), Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/137191379 (Accessed: 27 March 2016).

TheCaroVan (2015i) Soheir Zaki in the Gulf (Part 1), Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/131605068 (Accessed: 27 March 2016).

TheCaroVan (2015j) Taheya Karioka (1950). Available at: https://vimeo.com/116512854 (Accessed: 14 March 2016).

TheCaroVan (2016) Nadia Gamal (1955) on Vimeo. Available at: https://vimeo.com/157266405 (Accessed: 26 March 2016).

Thomas, H. (2003) The Body, Dance and Cultural Theory. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Thomas, H. (2013) The body and everyday life. Abingdon: Routledge (The New Sociology).

TigerRocket (2012) Little Egypt 1896. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zxZoXJBILbc (Accessed: 22 February 2016).

Tiggemann, M., Coutts, E. and Clark, L. (2014) ‘Belly Dance as an Embodying Activity?: A Test of the Embodiment Model of Positive Body Image’, Sex Roles, 71(5–8), pp. 197–207. doi: 10.1007/s11199-014-0408-2.

Todaro, S. (no date) Ibrahim Akef, Musica&Danza Orientale.it. Available at: http://www.musicaedanzaorientale.it/index.php?scuola=ibrahim+akef&attivita=575 (Accessed: 24 February 2016).

Trilling, L. (1972) Sincerity and Authenticity. Revised edition. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Tunbridge, J. E. and Ashworth, G. J. (1996) Dissonant heritage: the management of the past as a resource in conflict. Chicester: Wiley.

Turner, V. (1969) The ritual process: structure and anti-structure. New York: Cornell University Press.

Turner, V. (1982) From Ritual to Theatre. The Human Seriousness of Play. New York: PAJ Publications.

TwilightShadowCool (2010) Nasra Emam dancing Shamadan at NGF Nov 2010. Nile Group Festival in Cairo. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fpCH7BJifKw (Accessed: 7 May 2016).


UNESCO (1954) Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict with Regulations for the Execution of the Convention. Available at: http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.phpURL_ID=13637&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html (Accessed: 30 July 2016).

UNESCO (1960) Recommendation concerning the Most Effective Means of Rendering Museums Accessible to Everyone. Available at: http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.phpURL_ID=13063&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html (Accessed: 20 April 2017).

UNESCO (1968) Recommendation concerning the Preservation of Cultural Property Endangered by Public or Private works. Available at: http://www.culturenet.cz/res/data/003/000421.pdf (Accessed: 9 January 2017).

UNESCO (1972) Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage. Paris. Available at: http://whc.unesco.org/archive/convention-en.pdf.

UNESCO (1977) Issues arising in connection with the implementation of the World Heritage Convention. Paris. Available at: http://whc.unesco.org/archive/1977/cc-77conf001-4e.pdf.

UNESCO (1989) Recommendation on the Safeguarding of Traditional Culture and Folklore: UNESCO. Paris: UNESCO. Available at: http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.phpURL_ID=13141&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html (Accessed: 2 November 2016).

UNESCO (1994) Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage. Nara Document on Authenticity. Experts meeting, 1-6 November 1994. WHC94/CONF.003/INF.008. Phuket, Thailand. Available at: http://whc.unesco.org/archive/nara94.htm.

UNESCO (2003) Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage. MISC/2003/CLT/CH/14. Available at: http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/en/convention.

UNESCO (2005) Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention. Paris. Available at: http://whc.unesco.org/archive/opguide05-en.pdf (Accessed: 16 October 2016).

UNESCO (2015) Recommendation concerning the protection and promotion of museums and collections, their diversity and their role in society. Available at: http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.phpURL_ID=49357&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html (Accessed: 20 April 2017).

UNESCO (2016a) Frequently Asked Questions – intangible heritage – Culture Sector – UNESCO. Available at: http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/en/faq-00021 (Accessed: 4 January 2017).

UNESCO (2016b) Procedure of inscription of elements on the Lists and of selection of Best Safeguarding Practices – intangible heritage – Culture Sector – UNESCO. Available at: http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/en/procedure-of-inscription-00809 (Accessed: 4 January 2017).

UNESCO (2016c) Purpose of the Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage and of the Register of Best Safeguarding Practices – intangible heritage – Culture Sector – UNESCO. Available at: http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/en/purpose-of-the-lists-00807 (Accessed: 4 January 2017).

UNESCO (2017a) Egypt – intangible heritage – Culture Sector – UNESCO. Available at: http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/en/state/egypt-EG?info=elements-on-the-lists (Accessed: 30 March 2017).

UNESCO (2017b) Lists of intangible cultural heritage and Register of best safeguarding practices. Available at: http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/index.php?lg=en&pg=00559 (Accessed: 19 April 2016).

UNESCO (no date a) Căluş ritual – intangible heritage – Culture Sector

UNESCO. Available at: http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/en/RL/calus-ritual-00090 (Accessed: 1 January 2017).

UNESCO (no date b) Countries | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Available at: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/member-states/countries/ (Accessed: 10 January 2017).

UNESCO (no date c) ‘General introduction to the standard-setting instruments of UNESCO’. Available at: http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.phpURL_ID=23772&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html (Accessed: 19 July 2015).

UNESCO (no date d) History | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Available at: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco/about-us/who-weare/history/ (Accessed: 10 January 2017).

UNESCO (no date e) Intangible Cultural Heritage. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Promoting Intangible Cultural Heritage in Egypt. Available at: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/cairo/culture/intangible-cultural-heritage/ (Accessed: 30 March 2017).

UNESCO (no date f) Resources – intangible heritage – Culture Sector – UNESCO. Available at: http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/en/resources-00385 (Accessed: 30 March 2017).

Unknown (no date) (Ahabek Ya Hassan) I Love You Hassan. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e_O0qRpl4AA (Accessed: 30 December 2014).

Urry, J. (2007) Mobilities. Second. Cambridge and Malden (MA USA): Polity Press.

U.S. Copyright Office (no date) Chapter 1 – Circular 92 | U.S. Copyright Office. Available at: https://www.copyright.gov/title17/92chap1.html#107 (Accessed: 30 June 2017).


Van Nieuwkerk, K. (1995) ‘A trade like any other’. Female Singers and Dancers in Egypt. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Van Zile, J. (1996) ‘Non-Polynesian Dance in Hawai’i: Issues of Identity in a multicultural Community’, Dance Research Journal, 28(1), pp. 28–50.

Van Zile, J. (2002) Perspectives on Korean Dance. Middletown, Conn: Wesleyan University Press.

Varga Dinicu, C. (2001) In Loving Remembrance & Requiem: the Best SchoolThat Ever Was | Morocco & the Casbah Dance Experience, Casbahdance.org. Available at: http://www.casbahdance.org/in-loving-remembrance-requiem-the-best%c2%93school%c2%94-that-ever-was/ (Accessed: 5 June 2016).

Varga Dinicu, C. (2013) You Asked Aunt Rocky: Answers & Advice About Raqs Sharqi & Raqs Shaabi. Virginia Beach, VA: Hypatia-Rose Press.


Wacquant, L. (2007) ‘Pierre Bourdieu’, in Stones, P. R. (ed.) Key Sociological Thinkers: Second Edition. 2nd edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 261–277.

Waldron, J. (1995) ‘Minority Cultures and the Cosmopolitan Alternative’, in Kymlicka, W. (ed.) The Rights of Minority Cultures. First Edition edition. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, USA, pp. 93–119.

Walker Rettberg, J. (2008) Blogging. Oxford: Polity Press.

Walsh, D. F. (1998) ‘Structure/Agency’, in Jenks, C. (ed.) Core Sociological Dichotomies. 1 edition. London; Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications Ltd, pp. 8–33.

Wanat, C. L. (2008) ‘Getting Past the Gatekeepers: Differences Between Access and Cooperation in Public School Research’, Field Methods, 20(2), pp. 191–208. doi: 10.1177/1525822X07313811.

Ward, H. D. (2013a) At the Crossroads, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/cms/2013/06/10/nisaa-20thcentury-bellydancecrossroads/#axzz47h1MN2HN (Accessed: 4 May 2016).

Ward, H. D. (2013b) Desperately Seeking Shafiqa, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/cms/2013/10/03/nisaa-desperately-seekingshafiqa/#axzz47h1MN2HN (Accessed: 4 May 2016).

Ward, H. D. (2013c) From Café Chantant to Casino Opera, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/cms/2013/01/10/from-cafe-chantant-to-casinoopera/#axzz47h1MN2HN (Accessed: 4 May 2016).

WardaElHosny (no date) Randa Kamel on TV show ‘1001 nights’. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X1yWMC7OmAk (Accessed: 6 April 2016).

Wax, R. (1986) Doing Fieldwork: Warnings and Advice. New edition edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Weiss, S. (2014) ‘Listening to the World but Hearing Ourselves: Hybridity and Perceptions of Authenticity in World Music’, Ethnomusicology, 58(3), p. 506. doi: 10.5406/ethnomusicology.58.3.0506.

Welsch, W. (1999) ‘Transculturality – the Puzzling Form of Cultures Today’, in Featherstone, M. and Lash, S. (eds) Spaces of Culture: City, Nation, World. London: Sage Publications Ltd (Theory, Culture & Society), pp. 194–213.

Westover, N. (no date) About Helena Vlahos, Helena Vlahos.com. Available at: http://www.helenavlahos.com/about.html (Accessed: 27 March 2016).

Wilcox, H. (2011) ‘Movement in spaces of liminality: Chinese dance and immigrant identities’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 34(2), pp. 314–332. doi: 10.1080/01419870.2010.528439.

Wilkinson, L. (no date) Raqia Dance Festival review by Latifa for the Gilded Serpent, Gilded Serpent. Available at: http://www.gildedserpent.com/articles13/raqiareviewlatifa.htm (Accessed: 8 April 2016).

Wolcott, H. F. (1990) Writing Up Qualitative Research. 1 edition. Newbury Park, Calif: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Wolcott, H. F. (1994) Transforming Qualitative Data: Description, Analysis, and Interpretation. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications, Inc.

Wong, C. M. (2013) Intangible cultural heritage of dance as medium for intercultural dialogue: culture assimilator reinterpreted. Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus. Available at: https://opus4.kobv.de/opus4-btu/oai/container/index/docId/2839 (Accessed: 17 June 2017).

Wong, I. K. F. (2009) ‘The Heritage of Kunqu: Preserving Music and Theater Traditions in China’, in Silverman, H. and Ruggles, D. F. (eds) Intangible Heritage Embodied. New York, NY: Springer New York, pp. 15–36. Available at: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-14419-0072-2 (Accessed: 4 October 2015).


You, Z. (2015) ‘Shifting Actors and Power Relations: Contentious Local Responses to the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Contemporary China’, in Foster, M. D. and Gilman, L. (eds) UNESCO on the Ground: Local Perspectives on Intangible Cultural Heritage. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 113–128.

Yun, K. (2015) ‘The Economic Imperative of UNESCO Recognition: A South Korean Shamanic Ritual’, in Foster, M. D. and Gilman, L. (eds) UNESCO on the Ground: Local Perspectives on Intangible Cultural Heritage. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 41–58.


Zahara, I. and Shahin, M. (2012) ‘Randa Kamel of course – Interview with the Egyptian Star ~ Oriental Limelight’, Oriental Limelight, 1 May. Available at: http://orientallimelight.blogspot.com/2012/05/randa-kamel-of-course-interviewwith.html (Accessed: 8 April 2016).

Zaki Osman, A. (2011) The 1952 revolution: A legacy of cultural transformation, Egypt Independent. Available at: http://www.egyptindependent.com/news/1952-revolutionlegacy-cultural-transformation (Accessed: 18 June 2016).

Zebec, T. (2007) ‘Experiences and Dilemmas of Applied Ethnochoreology’, Narodna Umjetnost: Hrvatski Casopis za Etnologiju i Folkloristiku/Croatian Journal of Ethnology and Folklore Research, 44(1), pp. 7–25.

Zebec, T. (2009) ‘Development and application of ethnochoreology in Croatia’, in Talam, J. (ed.). VI. međunarodni simpozij ‘Muzika u društvu’/VI. International Symposium ‘Music in Society’. Sarajevo, October 28-30, 2008, Sarajevo: Muzička akademija, Muzikološko društvo FBiH, pp. 138–152. doi: 10.13140/rg.2.1.3220.2080.

Zebec, T. (2013) ‘An Ethnologist in the World of Heritage: Recognizing the Intangible Culture of Croatia’, Ethnologie française, XLIII(2), pp. 267–278. doi: 10.3917/ethn.132.0267.

Zebec, T. (2015) ‘Intangible Culture as Heritage The Linđo – Kolo Dance, from the Dubrovnik Littoral’, TDE E-Journal for Translingual Discourse in Ethnomusicology. Translated by N. H. Antoljak, K. Wolf, and J. Sloan-Leitner, 1. doi: 10.17440/tde004.

Zebec, T. et al. (2015) ‘Panel. Music and Dance as Intangible and Tangible Cultural Heritage: Croatian Experiences’, in Dunin, E. I. (ed.). 28th Symposium of the ICTM Study Group on Ethnochoreology, 7-17 July 2014, Korčula, Croatia, Zagreb, Croatia: Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Research, pp. 228–229. doi: 10.13140/rg.2.1.1889.7040.

Zhu, Y. (2015) ‘Cultural effects of authenticity: contested heritage practices in China’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 21(6), pp. 594–608. doi: 10.1080/13527258.2014.991935.

Ziliotto Boudress, P. (no date) Alcuni cenni su Ibrahim Akef. Available at: http://www.duniaoriental.org/ibrahim.html (Accessed: 24 February 2016).

Zuhur, S. (1992) Revealing Reveiling: Islamist Gender Ideology in Contemporary Egypt. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.